香港耳鼻喉專科

Contact Us

Rm 02, 5/F., Kai Seng Commerical Centre,
4-6 Hankow Road, TST Kln, HK
(near Kowloon Hotel)
Tel: (852) 3100 0555
Fax: (852) 3100 0556

ENT Doctor

嗅覺系統失靈,該怎麼辦?

通過嗅覺,我們可以聞到不同食物的香味,為進食增加很多的樂趣。嗅覺同樣能保護我們,例如聞到燒焦東西的氣味時,我們能即時作出反應避開危險。但嗅覺有時會失靈,例如嗅覺變得過度敏感或遲鈍,兩者都屬於嗅覺異常,但以前者較為常見。

 

 

嗅覺異常會有什麼症狀?

嗅覺一旦出現異常,比如變得過度敏感時,患者就會聞到一些根本不存在的味道,很多病人抱怨說,常常聞到某些特定氣味(例如魚腥味)。反之,出現嗅覺遲鈍的患者,就會聞不到原有的味道,看來兩者的嗅覺接收器都出了問題。

 

主管我們嗅覺的嗅覺神經,負責接收氣味,辨別味道,嗅覺神經一旦受病毒感染,少則嗅覺暫時失靈,大則嗅覺神經受破壞,嗅覺會永久受影響。有時一場感冒就會造成嗅覺神經的損壞,現時在全球肆虐的新冠肺炎病毒,據報病人亦有明顯嗅覺下降的情況。事實上,某些嗅覺喪失的病人,他們的復原程度很有限。

 

 

什麼引致嗅覺出現異常?

感冒可以令嗅覺神經受損,有時損害更是不可逆轉的,即使感冒好了但嗅覺也無法恢復。鼻竇炎也會令患者嗅覺神經受損,而且治療後嗅覺仍難以回復,或效果有限。頭部外傷也是導致嗅覺出現異常的因素之一。頭部疾病,例如腦腫瘤,要是腫瘤長近嗅覺區就會影響嗅覺。

 

 

嗅覺異常如何診斷和治療?

味道是很抽象的東西,所以要診斷嗅覺的異常也不容易,患者自身會有不同的描述,但這些都是主觀的感受。但使嗅覺產生異常,通常是跟嗅覺有關的身體器官出毛病或因疾病引致,所以檢查嗅覺異常可循這些相關的方面著手。

 

如果屬病毒感染,會有兩種發展可能,第一是因鼻黏膜腫脹造成鼻塞,所以聞不到氣味。第二是嗅覺神經發炎,嗅覺變得遲鈍。神經發炎可使用類固醇治療。不過,若治療半年後嗅覺仍未能恢復正常,即表示嗅覺的損傷是永久的。

 

如果是其他疾病引致嗅覺出現異常(例如頭部受傷或鼻竇炎),可做的就是積極治療相關疾病,當病因除去,便可期望嗅覺恢復過來。

 

 

如何預防嗅覺出現異常?

運動可強化交感神經的活動,使鼻黏膜較有彈性,有益於嗅覺神經。讓嗅覺神經保持活性,可以嘗試聞不同的新氣味,藉此刺激腦部以保持鼻子的靈敏。任何有損嗅覺神經的習慣都應戒除,例如戒煙等。

 

 

遇有任何耳鼻喉問題,請立即聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科,電話: 3100 0555,由我們的耳鼻喉科醫生為你診治。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

The Surgical Options for Children with Microtia

Unfortunately, microtia isn’t only about the atypical size and shape of the earlobe. Parents and pediatricians are more concerned about the partial or full hearing loss children with microtia will experience. Emphasis must be made that hearing loss has adverse effects on speech and language development, as well as on personal interactions.

 

The good news is that there are more than a few surgical options for the treatment of microtia. You and your child’s pediatric surgeon will discuss the risks and rewards of these options. You have to remember, too, that surgery may not yet be an option for your child, such as when he’s too young for it.

 

Rib Cartilage Graft Surgery

This is possibly the most complicated surgical treatment for microtia since it involves several procedures over several months, sometimes up to a year. Due to the possible complications, it’s only recommended for older children, usually between 8 and 10 years old.

 

Basically, rib cartilage is harvested from the patient’s chest. It’s then used in creating the shape of the external ear before being implanted under the skin where the ear should have been present.  But the process doesn’t stop there.

 

More skin grafts and surgeries may be performed in addition to the new cartilage. These surgeries are done to ensure better positioning of the external ear.

 

The pros of rib cartilage graft surgery is that rib cartilage from the patient is less likely to be rejected by his body and it’s a sturdier material. But there may be pain, discomfort and scarring in the grafting site.

 

Medpor Graft Surgery

The Medpor graft surgery involves lesser number of times under the knife and younger age of patients than rib cartilage graft surgery. Basically, a synthetic material is implanted into the external ear to mimic its form and function. It’s then covered by scalp tissue, a way of achieving a more natural appearance.

 

It’s usually completed in a single session so children are less traumatized by the procedure. In fact, children as young as 3 years old are suitable candidates.

 

The results are more consistent since the synthetic material can be manipulated than a rib graft. But there are also risks to the Medpor graft surgery including the higher risk of infection. Children are also more likely to lose the implant due to physical trauma or injury.

 

There’s also the matter of pediatric surgeons either not offering or performing Medford graft surgery because the length of time that the implant lasts isn’t established yet.  But if your pediatric surgeon can perform it, you may want to consider it.

 

If these two surgical options aren’t viable or successful for any reason, you may want to consider ear prosthetics. These look natural and, in fact, can be made based on the size of the normal ear. These can also be attached through an implanted anchor system or worn with a skin-friendly adhesive.

 

If you would like to learn more about microtia and its surgical options for children, please consult HK ENT specialist.

 

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

喉癌是一種可怕的耳鼻喉疾病,什麼人容易患上喉癌?

喉癌是香港排行第18號的癌症,它是一種可怕的耳鼻喉疾病,它不單損害病人的健康,還會奪走病人的說話能力!因為喉癌發病位置就在咽部(喉嚨)以及喉部(語音盒)或扁桃腺體中,而所有這些部位跟說話功能密切相關。

有些人患喉癌的風險較其他人高。讓我們看一下這些危險因素以及有什麼耳鼻喉疾病的症狀需要特別注意。

 

 

患上喉癌的風險因素

請記住,一個人即使有一項或多項風險因素,並不意味著他必定會罹患癌症。但是這些因素卻顯示他較其他人有更高的患病風險,因為這些危險的因素不斷傷害著喉嚨。

  1. 使用煙草製品,包括咀嚼煙草和抽煙,煙草中的尼古丁和其他有害化學物直接損害喉嚨組織。
  2. 過度使用酒精,長期過度飲酒,酒精會傷害身體,包括喉嚨部位。
  3. 人乳頭瘤病毒(HPV),HPV是一種性傳播疾病,已被證實會增加患喉癌的風險。
  4. 胃酸倒流(GERD)若未有好好醫治,亦會增加患上咽喉癌的風險。

 

上述4點我們不難明白其風險所在,但出乎意料的是,原來進食新鮮水果和蔬菜不足,同樣是增加喉癌的風險因素!不過只要想一想,對於保持身體健康以及增強免疫力而言,健康的飲食模式的確有效降低罹患癌症的機會,因此進食水果和蔬菜足夠與否,與喉癌風險相關也不足為奇。

 

 

頸部有腫塊就是喉癌先兆嗎?

如果脖子或喉嚨位置有腫塊,不一定是惡性腫瘤,有時頸部淋巴受病毒感染(例如鍊球菌)也會出現腫塊,但當病毒清除後,腫塊就會消失。

但是,如果在治療後腫塊仍一直沒有消退,或在沒有任何不適下出現無名的腫塊,就有可能是癌症的警號。

 

如果您有以下症狀及頸部腫塊,應立即諮詢耳鼻喉科醫生

  • 沒有任何疾病的情況下,出現吞嚥困難並持續幾星期
  • 聲音變的嘶啞低沉
  • 吞嚥後喉嚨仍有異物感
  • 持續咽喉疼痛
  • 口腔容易出血,口腔潰爛,藥物治療後仍無法治愈
  • 舌頭,臉頰和/或牙齦部位出現紅色和白色斑點
  • 口腔或舌頭有麻痺感
  • 慢性鼻塞
  • 耳朵痛

 

要是你有上述症狀,請保持鎮定並聯絡你的耳鼻喉科醫生,讓他為你進行診斷測試,確定症狀和成因。只要採取正確又及時的治療,咽喉癌是能夠治好的。

 

 

由於耳鼻喉問題因情況而異,因此建議諮詢專業耳鼻喉醫生,獲取適當的耳鼻喉科服務和治療,需要協助,請聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科,電話: 3100 0555。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Interesting Findings About Microtia That Pregnant Women May Want to Know

Pregnant women typically seesaw between being happy about their unborn babies and worrying about their babies’ health. Their concerns aren’t unfounded considering that congenital defects form within the womb, and these congenital defects can range from physical abnormalities to mental retardation.

 

Among these physical abnormalities are undeveloped external ears, a condition known as microtia. But it isn’t just the atypical size and shape of the earlobes that characterize microtia – it’s also characterized by hearing loss.

 

Are you intrigued by microtia yet? If you are, you will find these interesting findings about microtia in unborn babies and infants.

 

Its Cause Remains a Mystery

Scientists have yet to identify a specific cause of microtia. But there are a few theories including malfunctions in a gene located in chromosome 22.

 

The interplay of genetics and environment in the development of microtia in the womb is also not fully understood yet. In current medical literature, between 3 and 34 percent of patients with microtia have a genetic component.

 

Scientists, nonetheless, have confirmed that neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2), an autosomal dominant disorder, is a risk factor in microtia. If one parent has NF2, his or her children will have a 50-50 chance of getting microtia.

 

Yet another possible, but unconfirmed risk factor, is the use of isotretinoin, an anti-acne medication. Isotretinoin (Accutane) can result in a pattern of congenital defects believed to be a combination of genes and environmental factors.

 

It’s More Common in Some Areas

There are no generally accepted theories for why microtia has a higher incidence rate in Latin America, particularly Ecuador, and Asia than in other areas of the world. If you are in these areas, you may want to talk to your doctor about decreasing the risks of your unborn child getting congenital defects.

 

Boys also seem to be more affected by microtia than girls although both genders will experience similar signs and symptoms. The right ear also seems to be more affected than the left ear, but a small percentage of children with microtia will have it in both ears (i.e., bilateral microtia).

 

It Can Occur with Other Conditions

Microtia can also occur with other distinct medical conditions. The three more common conditions are:

 

  • Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a genetic disorder characterized by physical abnormalities eyes, ears and cheekbones, as well as the chin.
  • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder affecting the proper development of the ears, mouth and mandible.
  • Goldenhar syndrome causes physical defects in the face and head. It’s a rare congenital disease.

 

There are also maternal behaviors and conditions that can increase the risk of microtia in unborn babies. Women with diabetes before their pregnancy have been shown to have higher risk compared to women without diabetes. Pregnant women on a diet characterized by low levels of folic acid and carbohydrates also seem to have an increased risk for their babies developing microtia.

 

If you would like to learn more about microtia and its treatment, please consult HK ENT specialist.

 

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

喉嚨痛並非小事,急性會厭炎嚴重可致死!

為了防止食物誤入氣管,當我們吞嚥時,喉嚨上方的一片軟骨組織,會自動往後遮蓋著氣管,這片軟組織就是會厭。會厭位於氣管上方,附近還有其他組織,如杓狀軟骨、咽喉黏膜,這些軟組織都有機會發炎腫脹,造成喉嚨痛或呼吸困難,但當中以急性會厭急炎最常見亦最危險,它一旦感染發炎或因其他原因出現腫脹,就會阻塞氣管入口,有可能令患者窒息,導致死亡。

 

 

什麼誘發會厭炎?

病毒感染是主要因素,常見的致病菌包括:B型嗜血桿菌(Hinfluenzae type B)、A 型肺炎鏈球菌(group A Streptococcus pneumonia)及化膿性金黃色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus pyogenes)。另外,造成帶狀疱疹(Shingles)、水痘(Chickenpox),以及呼吸感染的病毒,還有造成尿布疹(Diaper rash)或酵母菌感染(Yeast infection)的真菌,也會誘發會厭炎。病毒可透過病人咳嗽、打噴嚏或擤鼻涕等散播,如果我們不慎接觸了就會受感染,患病後也會傳染給其他人。

 

誰較易患上急性會厭炎?

任何人都有機會患上會厭炎。常見年紀介乎 40-50歲,當中男性患病人數較女性高。小朋友方面主要集中在6-12歲。而發病季節多在冬、春兩季,這也許與流行性感冒高峰季節互有關連。

 

 

急性會厭炎有什麼症狀?

兒童急性會厭炎常見症狀包括,發高燒、不自覺地將身體向前傾、喉嚨腫痛、聲沙、流口水、吞嚥困難及疼痛、焦慮不安、張嘴呼吸。而成人常見的症狀大致相若,包括發燒、喉嚨腫痛、吞嚥困難、聲音粗糙低沉、呼吸困難及有雜聲等。兩者最大的分別是,成人可能要幾天才會出現明顯症狀,但小朋友病情卻是非常急速,一天之內已有明顯病徵,此症可怕之處是嚴重時可導致死亡。

因為相較於成年人,小朋友喉嚨空間狹窄,會厭一旦腫脹勢必阻塞氣管。由於呼吸困難,小朋友會顯得很焦慮,為了令呼吸道稍為順暢,他們會用手撐著身體向前傾、抬高頭、口張大、舌頭伸出。父母如果發現年幼兒女有這典型身體姿勢,同時出現急性會厭炎的症狀,就要馬上求醫,不能拖延。

 

 

如何預防會厭炎?

  • 保持個人衞生十分重要,勤洗手或用酒精搓手液,可預防細菌傳播。
  • 避免與他人共用同餐具或食物。
  • 飲食均衡、適量運動、不抽煙、充分休息
  • 如已患有慢性疾病,就要盡量做好健康管理。

 

上述只是簡略談及急性會厭的症狀,如果你對任何症狀感到疑慮,請諮詢耳鼻喉醫生,香港耳鼻喉專科電話: 3100 0555。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Microtia and Surgery: The Reasons for Their Popularity Among Parents

Parents of children with microtia often choose surgery for their offspring. This isn’t surprising considering that microtia has physical and psychological impact on affected children. Parents being parents, they want to minimize the negative effects of microtia on their children.

 

Take note that microtia is a congenital deformity characterized by an underdeveloped external ear. Just as there are variations in size and shape in developed ears, there are also wide variances in microtia. Nonetheless, most children with microtia have moderate to severe conductive hearing loss due to the abnormalities in the outer ear.

 

Even with the risks including side effects and complications of microtia surgery, most parents of children with the condition opt for it. Here are two of the common reasons.

 

Social Interactions

Studies have shown that children with hearing impairments are more likely to have lower self-esteem and self-confidence. This is worsened by the visible signs of the hearing loss, such as in the case of microtia.

 

Their lower levels of self-esteem and self-confidence are attributed to their decreased ability to communicate with others. The inability to hear sounds and voices make them less able to recognize auditory cues and make appropriate responses. With these disabilities, they feel more isolated and less included in the everyday activities of their family and friends.

 

Their feelings of isolation become more pronounced in schools. Typically, school-age children with hearing impairments are either placed in a different class for the entirety of the school day or separated for part of the day in special education classrooms.

 

Even at home, children with hearing impairments can experience stress from their parents and siblings for the same reasons.  They may feel isolated from certain activities, perhaps feel discriminated against even when there isn’t an intention.

 

With surgery, fortunately, children with hearing loss issues have the opportunity to be part of the hearing world. By opening up their hearing, so to speak, their social interactions with family and friends will blossom. In time, their self-confidence will increase – and that’s what parents who choose surgery for them want to happen.

 

Aesthetic Appearances

The more common reason for parents choosing surgery for microtia for their kids is to improve the appearance of their external ears. Unfortunately, children without a visible external ear or an abnormal external ear are likely to be ridiculed and bullied by their peers. Even their parents can be subjected to weird looks and awkward questions, if not rude comments, from others!

 

The stress of dealing with the stares, questions and comments, even the bullying, can really take its toll. Parents then are justified in their choice to ask their children’s pediatricians for surgical options to correct the abnormal ears.

 

The bottom line: If you are a parent with a child diagnosed with microtia, you are well-advised to explore the treatment options for the condition. Your child deserves it and you will breathe easier for it, too.

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult HK ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

聲帶麻痺就是發聲功能失調,還影響吞嚥功能,不能輕視!

今次我們集中討論單側聲帶麻痺的問題,因為大多數聲帶麻痺患者都是單側麻痺類型。對於雙側聲帶麻痺的病人,其症狀嚴重性及治療方法有別於本文所提及。

 

聲帶麻痺簡單來說是聲帶不能正常發揮作用。當我們說話時,兩側聲帶與喉部其他肌肉和神經組織一同協作,便能產生聲音。而聲帶麻痺就是發聲功能失調,引致的問題不止聲線,還影響吞嚥功能,絕不能輕視。

 

 

為什麼會聲帶麻痺?

聲帶麻痺牽涉的疾病相當之廣,除了喉部疾病,還有腦部、頸部、肺部、心臟、胸腔及病毒感染等等。涉及這麼廣的原因主要是調節聲帶的喉神經中,喉返神經從腦發出之後沿著頸動脈往下延伸,通過人體多個重要部位,只要這些部份中任何一處出現異常也會引起喉神經的異常。

 

舉例說,患有甲狀腺腫瘤或進行相關手術的病人,常出現聲帶麻痺情況,主要是手術部位接近喉返神經,任何手術都會對細微的神經造成影響。另一例子是長期插喉的患者,其聲門受傷或氣管內管壓迫喉返神經,在拔除喉管後大機會出現單側聲帶麻痺。

 

 

聲帶麻痺有什麼症狀?

單側聲帶麻痺主要影響《發音》和《吞嚥》。患者聲帶麻痺,說話時聲門閉合不緊,他說出來的聲音會有嚴重"漏氣"情況,說話亦會十分費力,因此說話時間不能持久,音調也會改變。

 

另外,進食時,正常情況下聲帶會關閉,避免食物掉進氣管或肺部。但聲帶麻痺的患者,由於聲帶無法關緊,影響到吞嚥功能,令食物或水容易誤入氣管,故進食常常出現嗆到、咳嗽,甚至有機會造成吸入性肺炎。

 

 

如何治療聲帶麻痺?

進行注射手術,利用病人自體脂肪或玻尿酸,注射到聲帶附近,使麻痺一側的聲帶靠近正常的一側。大部份患者在完成補充物注射手術後,聲線有明顯進步。無論是自體脂肪或玻尿酸,最後都會被病人身體自然吸收,有不少的病人在補充物流失後聲音仍能保持穩定狀態,有的卻需要再注射。

 

另一項手術稱為Thyroplasty 甲狀軟骨成形術,主要針對神經受損嚴重或預期難以恢復的病人。手術的目的是將聲帶內移以改善聲門閉合,醫生在病人甲狀軟骨位置切開頸部皮膚,然後切除小部分甲狀軟骨,將植入物放進喉部。病人手術後可預期改善發聲、減少嗆到及改善發聲效率

 

遇有任何聲線問題,請聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科,電話: 3100 0555。我們的耳鼻喉科醫生會為你細心診治。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Are You At Risk for Acoustic Neuroma?

Acoustic neuroma is a non-cancerous tumor in the vestibular nerve connecting your inner ear and brain. While it will not kill you, per se, it will cause a wide range of symptoms like headaches, nausea and loss of balance and coordination when it’s large enough. These symptoms are due to the fact that the branches of the vestibular nerve have a direct influence on hearing, balance and coordination.

 

If it’s any consolation, acoustic neuroma isn’t a contagious disease. You won’t get it by sitting next to a person with it, not even by sharing utensils and a bed. But it’s also important to know the risk factors so you can decide to seek medical opinion in case you have the symptoms.

 

Risk Factors Explained

Emphasis must be made that risk factors refers to the characteristics, bahaviors and conditions that increase the likelihood of getting a specific illness or injury. The presence of one or more risk factors doesn’t automatically mean getting the illness or suffering from the injury 100%.

 

For example, a risk factor for lung cancer is the use of tobacco products, particularly smoking cigarettes. But it doesn’t mean that every smoker will be afflicted with lung cancer! It only means that there’s a higher risk for smoker to get lung cancer.

 

Risk Factor for Acoustic Neuroma

With that being said, scientists have identified a single risk factor for acoustic neuroma: neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2). There may or may be other risk factors but NF2 is the only confirmed risk factor, for now.  There’s also the matter of NF2 only accounting for around 5% of cases.

 

NF2 is characterized by the development of benign tumors on the balance nerves that, in turn, affect balance and coordination in the affected person. This is an autosomal dominant disorder, a mutation passed on by a dominant gene of an affected parent. As such, a child with a parent affected by NF2 has a 50-50 chance of getting it through genetic inheritance.

 

This means that the genetic lottery can swing either way. You can inherit the malfunctioning gene located on chromosome 22 or you don’t have it.

 

Normally, said gene on chromosome 22 produces a protein that suppresses tumor growth. This tumor suppressor protein aids in controlling the abnormal growth of Schwann cells on the balance nerves.

 

At present, scientists have yet to determine why and how the gene malfunctions. For this reason, there’s usually no identifiable cause for acoustic neuroma.

 

If one of your parents has NF2, you may want to look out for possible signs and symptoms of acoustic neuroma. You won’t immediately feel these signs, however, as these are usually subtle and take years to develop.

 

But if you experience gradual or sudden hearing loss, either in one or both ears, tinnitus, loss of balance and/or dizziness, you should seek medical opinion for your ENT specialist ASAP.

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult HK ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

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