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3 Best Cures for Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms

When you’re sneezing non stop after a dusting session at home, or you find yourself with an itchy and runny nose after visiting the pet shop, chances are, you have allergic rhinitis. It’s a very common disease and it affects 20% of the human population.

 

Medical experts can only explain how it happens but they don’t have an idea what causes it in the first place. There are several remedies, and thanks to medical advances, rhinitis is just one antihistamine pill away. If you opt for homeopathic remedies, some ingredients are readily available at a supermarket. Read more to find out.

 

 

Avoiding your allergens.

We’ll start off with preventive measures because “prevention is the best cure.” The very first step to not suffer allergies is to find out which allergen your body reacts to. Thankfully, you can go to a clinic for some tests but if you’d like a fancier experience, you can visit an immunologist and allergy expert.

 

They will conduct several tests so you can find out which allergen you’re most averse to. We’ll give you a heads up – the most common cause for allergic rhinitis are either of the following: dust, pollen, and dander. The first allergen can be avoided by keeping your home clean, the second one – by staying indoors, and the last one by opting for short haired or hairless breeds, or other pet alternatives (if you still want to keep a pet, that is)

 

 

Antihistamines.

Over-the-counter brands for antihistamines include Claritin, Benadryl, and Allegra. Most of these histamines work the same way – they reduce the activity of histamine receptors that are the primary cause for the sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes and throat.

 

Because they limit the production of an immune response, that means an absence of defensive barriers like mucus. You’ll probably need to drink water or use a humidifier in addition to taking the medications because your nasal passages and your throat will dry out. As with any other medication, always consult your physician prior to taking these drugs.

 

 

Corticosteroids.

If the antihistamines only acted on receptors, corticosteroids are medications that act on the hormones associated with producing histamines. This means that you won’t suffer the symptoms of rhinitis and the added benefit of not having to experience dryness in your mucous membranes.

 

The only downside to this is that it has to be taken as a preventive medication. It means that once the allergies have started, taking corticosteroids will reduce the severity of existing symptoms but at this point, taking an antihistamine is the better option.

 

Some popular corticosteroids for allergies include dexamethasone, prednisone, prednisolone under the brand names Dilacort, Pevanti, Decadron, or Dexpak.

 

These are just some of the few medications to the symptomatic treatment of allergies. There are homeopathic remedies too, but be careful as some of these all natural remedies still remain untested and may not be medically approved.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

頭頸部癌症 – 為何會生癌?

頭頸部癌症一般泛指發生在唇、舌、口腔、唾液腺、扁桃腺、口、咽、喉、鼻咽、鼻腔、鼻竇、淋巴等部位的惡性腫瘤。而甲狀腺一般被視為個別的原發性腫瘤。所有癌症都有其演化過程,若能及早察覺和治療,對於控制病情和治療成效有很大差別。我們希望透過香港耳鼻喉專科的博客,讓大家對相關疾病有更多的了解,希望做到及早發覺和預防的作用。

 

 

為何會生癌?

在正常的情況下,我們的身體會不斷生長新的細胞,替換死去的細胞,這種現象我們稱之為新陳代謝。癌症的形成是因為有些細胞不按既有的正常常規生長,而是失控地不斷增生細胞,這些不正常過度增生的細胞便是癌。癌細胞會擴散到身體其他部份並繼續生長,繼而影響身體一個或多個器官的正常運作,最終令患者死亡。

 

 

癌細胞是什麼?

癌的基本單位是癌細胞,癌細胞跟正常的細胞是不相同的。在顯微鏡下觀察下,可見癌細胞核心內的染色體數目及本質異於正常細胞。這些不正常的染色體中更隱藏著某些不正常的致癌基因。

 

 

癌症全都一樣可怕嗎?

癌病其實並非是一種單一的病,不同種類的癌症,其危險性也有不同。例如,某類癌症是較為溫和的,比如皮膚癌,一般都可以用手術將其根治,而且也較少復發,又例如甲狀腺癌,一般年輕的女性較易患上,同樣能夠根治也較少復發。反之,某些癌症則較為惡毒的,比如肝癌,不少患者在發現時,癌腫已生長到不能用外科手術完全切除的程度。有不少癌症的嚴重性,都跟發現時屬於早期或後期有很大的關係,比如早期的子宮頸癌,可以從子宮抹片偵測到,其治癒率達80%以上,而較後期的子宮頸癌,治癒率則降至50%以下。所以癌症是否可怕,要視乎是哪一種癌症及癌症被發現時處於什麼階段。

 

 

癌症病變三個階段

癌症的生長及轉移過程大致可分為三個階段,就是癌細胞在原位生長,繼而局部轉移至附近器官及組織,再遠距離轉移至身體其他器官及組織。下篇文章我們再講解這三個階段是如何發展及對治療成效的影響。

 

 

懷疑自己患上頭頸部癌症?不要遲疑,立即聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科診所,由我們的耳鼻喉專科醫生為你及早診治,電話3100 0555。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

4 Self-Help Options for A Choking Accident

People usually rush into panic when they’re choking and will instinctively ask for water if they can still speak. If people are around, they can ask for help either by calling an ambulance and letting them perform a Heimlich maneuver. If choking is not resolved, it can lead to loss of consciousness, and possibly death.

In the extremely rare case you choke and you are alone, the following steps ensure your chances of survival.

 

1.Stay calm and do not expend unnecessary effort.

You want your body to not demand too much oxygen and the best way to do this is by moving only as much as necessary. Your blood has limited oxygen supply and you’re only conscious as long as your heart is able to pump blood efficiently.

Any erratic behavior or forceful movements can increase your heart’s activity and your body will respond by consuming more oxygen to burn energy, and in turn, this will signal the brain for you to breathe more. This places you at a greater risk by letting the object go down deeper in your airways.

 

 

2.Call 999 immediately.

WIth the limited amount of time on your hand, calling for a first responder is important. If you’re able to talk, that’s good news. Waste no breath in telling your name and address (and of course the fact that you’re choking).

 

 

3.Perform Heimlich maneuver on yourself.

Your body is amazing at self-preservation. If you find yourself coughing, do not attempt to suppress it. Cough forcefully until the foregin object drops out. If it doesn’t work in the first few quick tries then it’s time to perform a Heimlich maneuver.

Position yourself so your body is parallel to the floor. You can do this by resting the upper half of your body on a counter or chair. Using one of your hands balled up in a fist, position it above the navel and cover it with your other hand. Try to push inwards and upwards at the same time in quick thrusts.

 

 

4.Ask for help from the nearest person.

If you live with neighbors in an apartment, it’s usually smarter to rush for help to allow them to do the Heimlich maneuver on you. This is the best method as you will no longer be able to perform Heimlich on yourself if you’re unconscious. The person in charge of an unconscious individual can do CPR until help arrives.

Nobody has to undergo these tedious steps so the best way is to avoid the risk of choking altogether.

 

 

5.How to avoid choking:

  • Eat food slowly and in bite sized amounts only.
  • Refrain from eating too much while drunk.
  • Refrain from getting drunk.
  • Be careful with sticky food i.e. prepare water or beverage to help push down the food.
  • Avoid talking while chewing.
  • Alternate eating and drinking to help facilitate swallowing.

 

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

食道癌手術切除如何進行?手術後需要注意什麼?

食道癌的治療的方法包括外科手術、化學治療或放射治療。按病人的情況,治療方法可以單獨使用,或合併使用。耳鼻喉專科醫生會跟病人討論,講解每種療法的優缺點,病人對自己的病情和治療方案有了解,對接下來的治療也有幫助。

 

  • 手術切除:對於早期發現的食道癌,外科手術是最優先考慮的方法。
  • 電療加化療:如果腫瘤不能做手術切除,而癌細胞又沒有擴散,會考慮先做放射治療,後加化學治療。
  • 化療:癌細胞若已擴散到身體的其它部分,就只能使用化學治療,化療目標是將腫瘤縮小,緩和病人的症狀,延長病人的生命。
  • 病人有吞嚥困難時,治療還包括:食道插管、擴張食道、激光治療。

 

 

食道癌手術治療如何進行

手術主要是將切除食道上有腫瘤的部位,由於食道連著胃,所以在手術中,病人上胃部份也常被移除,然後將餘下的食道跟胃部連接。此時胃部的位置會比以往提高了,這不會妨礙病人日後正常的進食,但要少食多餐。吃太飽太快可能會感到胃部不舒服。要是切除後的食道太短而無法連結胃部,就需要切割一段結腸來替代食道。

 

手術時,耳鼻喉專科醫生也會檢查食道附近的組織,並切除小部份淋巴結用顯微鏡觀察是否有癌細胞,以及它們處於哪個階段。如果手術開始後,發現癌腫瘤過大或已經擴散到食道壁以外部份,已不適合手術切除時,醫生會插入一條餵食管,讓病人較易進食和吞嚥。

 

 

食道癌手術後需要注意什麼

  • 病人接受手術切除食道腫瘤後,需要留在深切治療室1-2天接受護理。其間需要戴呼吸機幫助呼吸,直至麻醉藥消散為止。
  • 手術後傷口會感到疼痛,醫生會處方止痛藥。
  • 在恢復飲食以前,需要吊滴補充養分。也許要插鼻胃管,細小的管子經過鼻孔進入胃或小腸,作用是排走不必要的液體,使傷口加速癒合。
  • 可能需要插胸部排液管48小時,作用是清除因手術引起的肺部積水。
  • 手術後,即使仍需臥床,也要盡快活動雙腿,避免血塊凝結。也要深呼吸,保持肺部功能,這些活動都是復康的重要一步。
  • 手術後幾天只能用吸管吸一些液體,待傷口癒合後,才能正常的喝。如果病人的小腸植入了食物輸送管,要等能夠吞嚥後,才會移除。
  • 手術後幾個星期內,病人仍會感到吞嚥有困難,而且體重大幅下降,這都是正常的現象,慢慢就能再次吞嚥和正常飲食,體重也會回升。

 

 

有耳鼻喉問題,不要拖延,立即聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科診所,由我們的耳鼻喉專科醫生為你及早診治,電話3100 0555。下篇文章我們會談談食道癌放射治療方法。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

4 Things To Do Immediately When You Lose Your Voice

Loss of voice or a hoarseness in the voice isn’t life threatening but when it gets in the way of communicating with your family or friends, it can be very inconvenient. Perhaps you’d stayed longer than usual at a karaoke place or you may have gotten too excited at the winner of the World Cup Series.

 

Laryngitis happens for a number of reasons. It can be caused by an infection, a strained vocal cord, or a combination of the two. Regardless of the reason, here list 4 things to do when you lose your voice to help you get your voice back.

 

 

1.Zip it, Thanos.

The very first thing you want to do after losing your voice is refraining from talking. Your larynx has muscle components and gets worked out very similar to how you train your muscles in the gym. Making sure it gets ample rest gives it time to heal itself.

 

Laryngitis resolves itself in a week and usually does not need hospitalization or medications. Keeping quiet is all you need to do.

 

 

2.Avoid coffee.

Hot beverages are supposed to help someone with a sore throat right? The answer to that is yes, and the reason why coffee isn’t helpful despite being a hot beverage is that it does more harm than good.

 

Caffeine is a diuretic – it will make you have frequent visits to the bathroom and the only way to get back what you’ve lost is drinking lots of water. That’s why vocal coaches stress on the importance of keeping hydrated. It’s the same method in the fitness industry where hydration is very important to muscle recovery. Your ability to speak is possible because of these muscles.

 

 

3.Sleep.

More often than not, laryngitis is an aftermath of a very tiring cheering squad practice or an intense singing lesson. Sleeping will help direct your body’s efforts in repairing the damaged parts.

 

It’s also easier for the heart to pump blood when you’re horizontal, and blood rich with nutrients and oxygenated red blood cells will help repair your voice box.

 

 

4.Use a humidifier.

These devices work by delivering moist air into the surrounding area. They’re not only useful for people afflicted with allergies, but they’re also good for people who have lost their voice. If drinking water is painful, then delivering moisture by breathing it in is an alternative.

 

If your humidifier has an option to use a cool or warm mist, choose the cool one if you’re experiencing severe inflammation. If the laryngitis is caused by an infection, it’s more ideal to use the warm mist setting. The additional warmth will kill most bacteria as they don’t survive above normal body temperatures.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

食道癌需要做什麼檢查?食道癌的不同階段各代表什麼?

食道癌是香港常見的癌症之一,出現吞嚥困難、胸背痛、咳嗽、體重急速下降等食道癌症狀,需要做哪些檢查?食道癌分不同階段,不同階段各代表什麼?

 

食道內窺鏡檢驗法

耳鼻喉專科醫生利用內窺鏡檢查患者食道,若發現腫脹便會抽取組織,送往化驗所作活組織檢查,目的是確定是否有癌細胞存在。檢查時,醫生會為病人注射鎮靜劑,並在咽喉部位作局部麻醉,減低檢查帶來的不適。事實上,病人亦不用過度擔心,因為食道鏡檢查過程只有些許不適但並不痛楚。

 

 

飲鋇法

所謂「飲鋇法」,就是病人需要飲下一種能被X光照射到的含鋇藥水。當鋇由食道流向胃部時,X光機能追蹤並拍下食道的X光片。在病人飲下含鋇藥水15分鐘後,便可開始拍攝X光片,過程不會有任何痛楚。

 

 

進階檢驗

若然檢查結果顯示有癌細胞,病人需要接受進一步的檢查,好確認食道癌細胞有否擴散,處於什麼階段,以便制定食道癌的治療方案。進階的檢查,包括:

  • 照胸部X光
  • CT掃描(CATscan)
  • 內窺鏡超聲波檢驗,了解腫瘤發展程度,確定附近淋巴腺腫大原因
  • 肝臟超聲波掃描,量度腫瘤的大小和位置
  • 腹腔鏡檢查,了解癌細胞有否擴散到腹部
  • 磁力共振圖像(MRI)正電子斷層掃描(PET)。

 

 

食道癌5階段

食道癌分為下列5階段(由0-5)。數字越低,表示癌細胞擴散的機會越小。數字越高,擴散的機率越高。

0階段:這是食道癌最早期階段,由於未出現症狀,這個階段的食道癌很難被發現。

1階段:癌細胞只在食道表面的內壁,或在食道某一處,沒有擴散及影響附近的組織。

2階段:癌細胞已擴散到食道肌肉層或附近淋巴結,但未擴散到其他的器官。

3階段:癌細胞已擴散到食道壁以外的組織,波及鄰近淋巴結或組織,但未擴散到身體其他的部分。

4階段:癌細胞已經擴散到身體其他的部分,例如膀胱、大腸、盆骨以外的器官,例如肝臟、肺臟或胃部。

 

界定不同的階段目的是幫助醫生了解病情嚴重程度,以及衡量和制定治療方向,在為病人計劃療程時,還有下列因素需要一併考量:

‧患者的年齡

‧健康狀況

‧腫瘤的種類和大小

‧腫瘤在顯微鏡下的形狀

‧腫瘤是否擴散到其他的部位

 

 

確診食道癌之後,該如何治療?下篇文章我們會討論食道癌的治療方案如何制定。如果有出現病徵,懷疑是否患病,不要遲疑,立即聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科診所,由我們的耳鼻喉專科醫生為你診治,電話3100 0555

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

4 Unlikely Diseases Linked to A Loss of Smell

Anosmia or the absence of the sense of smell became popular recently due to its inclusion on the list of symptoms for COVID19. But anosmia isn’t only limited to COVID19. There are other diseases that can cause you to lose your sense of smell. Here are some of them:

 

1.Sinusitis.

Sinuses are the little holes and spaces in your skull that contain pockets of air. They help lighten the weight of the skull and also act as ducts or drainage for mucus. When sinuses get clogged, bacteria may proliferate and cause an infection. The resulting sinusitis will cause fever and a feeling of heaviness in the head.

 

A loss of smell happens due to the pressure exerted by the enlarged sinuses near the nose, affecting your ability to breathe in and discern differences in scent. So the next time you think you have COVID because you can’t taste your guac toast, it’s probably just sinusitis.

 

 

2.Aneurysm.

Brain aneurysms are more fatal than COVID and a loss of smell may be indicative that one already has a brain aneurysm. Enlarged blood vessels near the brain may press on nerves that are responsible for detecting smell. These blood vessels can rupture and can cause increased intracranial pressure that may lead to a loss of consciousness and even death.

 

The good news is your risk for aneurysm decreases significantly if: a) you don’t smoke; b) maintaining a healthy blood pressure, c) limiting caffeine intake; and d) exercising. Currently, there is no guaranteed way to predict or completely prevent aneurysms, so we all have to make changes to our lifestyles.

 

 

3.Schizophrenia.

A study published in 2009 studies the specific relationship between anosmia and schizophrenia, and posits that the lack of sense of smell can be a warning sign or can indicate the early onset of the neurological disease.

 

One of the most powerful memory triggers is smell, and a schizophrenic patient will have trouble remembering things. The part of the brain affected relative to the occurrence of schizophrenia is also responsible for helping us distinguish scents. Anosmia can also be linked to other neurological diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

 

There have been reports of COVID causing people to be forgetful so the distinction between COVID19 and early onset of schizophrenia becomes smaller, if basing on anosmia alone.

 

 

4.Paget’s disease of bones.

Paget’s disease makes bones brittle and causes bone formation to be irregular. This means individuals affected by Paget’s disease can experience a fracture, only to find the healed bone to be misaligned, or worse, deformed.

 

How does this affect loss of smell? In the same way sinusitis does. In rare cases, Paget’s disease will involve facial bones that grow in abnormal shapes. If these bones press on nerves in the brain or face, the loss of smell goes away. Nerve blockage is common in Paget’s disease and most complaints are due to pinched spinal nerves.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of the ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

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食道癌是什麼?了解食道癌,及早發現並預防!

食道癌是香港常見的癌症之一,它究竟是什麼?食道癌有什麼成因及症狀?什麼人較易患上?

 

食道癌是什麼?

食道是一條長若30厘米的肌肉管道,連接口腔及胃部,上半部位於氣管之後,與氣管分隔。氣管連接口、鼻和肺,用於呼吸。我們進食時,食物透過食道的收縮進入胃部。

 

在食道附近的頸及胸,以及食道與胃的連接處都布滿淋巴,腫瘤可以透過淋巴在食道的任何位置出現。在診斷及治療食道癌時,醫生會將食道分為上、中、下三部分檢查及治療。

 

食道癌的成因

食道癌在遠東和中亞地區是常見的癌症,亦是香港常見的癌症之一。以往患食道癌的大多是上了年紀的男性,但近年年齡範圍逐漸擴大,有可能是受飲食或環境等影響。食道癌的真正成因,醫學界至今仍無法確定,但身機能退化和不良生活習慣可能是成因之一。

 

  • 食道收縮功能減弱甚致喪失,連接食道和胃部的肌肉無法放鬆,令食物堆積而無法送達胃部。
  • 一類名為「麟狀癌」的食道癌,常出現在抽煙、喝酒,飲食不正常的人身上。另一類名為「巴洛氏食道症」,則因長期胃酸倒流入食道,令食道下部內壁細胞病變,一段時間後可能會發展成食道癌。

 

誰人患食道癌風險較高

年齡:患食道癌的風險隨年齡而增加

性別:食道癌患者以男性較多

習慣:吸煙、飲酒

體型:超重、肥胖

 

食道癌的症狀

最常見的食道癌症狀是吞嚥困難,食物在輸送入胃的過程中停滯不前。在患病後期,無論是固體或流質食物都難以吞嚥。除了吞嚥困難,還有下列:

  • 體重急速下降
  • 胸骨後或背部感到痛楚或不適
  • 難以消化酸性物質
  • 嘔吐
  • 咳嗽

 

有上述病徵不一定是患食道癌,但情況若持續出現1-2個星期,就一定要去看醫生。如需協助,請即聯絡香港耳鼻喉專科診所,由我們的耳鼻喉專科醫生為你診治,電話3100 0555

 

如何判斷是否患上食道癌?需要做什麼檢查?下篇文章我們會談論各種食道癌的檢查方法。

 

 

資料來源:

香港耳鼻喉專科

提供耳鼻喉科服務、頭及頸外科服務

聽力及言語治療、驗配助聽器服務

人工耳蝸植入、睡眠障礙治療

面部整形治療、醫學美容服務

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