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Rm 02, 5/F., Kai Seng Commerical Centre,
4-6 Hankow Road, TST Kln, HK
(near Kowloon Hotel)
Tel: (852) 3100 0555
Fax: (852) 3100 0556

Lawrence Chow / ENT Doctor

editor

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Sleep Apnea in Children: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

In babies and children, sleep apnea can be a disturbing and dangerous condition. This article goes over causes of sleep apnea in children, symptoms and its treatments.

 

What is sleep apnea?

Sleep apnea is a serious illness that can be life-threatening. It’s when the throat muscles relax and the airway becomes blocked during sleep, disrupting the breathing pattern. Sleep apnea can increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. More than 80% of those who have this condition are overweight or obese. It can also lead to long-term mental health problems such as depression or anxiety.

 

Who has it?

A recent study showed that about 30% of children in the US have obstructive sleep apnea, even though many are not identified. This is much higher than in adults, where the percentage is around 5%. The percentage in adults decreases when they move into the retirement age.

 

How do you know if your child has sleep apnea?

Children with sleep apnea usually snore, have difficulty breathing or pause for a few seconds while they are sleeping. They also exhibit symptoms of daytime sleepiness and struggle to maintain attention in school. It is important to identify this condition in children because it can lead to emotional and behavioral problems.

Some of these symptoms are similar to those described in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In fact, some children with sleep apnea are misdiagnosed as having ADHD.

 

Signs of Sleep Apnea in children

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that causes people to stop and start breathing during sleep. This may happen as many as 10 times an hour. Sleep apnea is most common in adults, but children can also have it. Symptoms of sleep apnea in children include:

  • Snore loudly
  • Stop breathing intermittently during sleep, followed by snorting or gasping
  • Sleep in abnormal position
  • Sweat heavily during sleep
  • Difficult to wake up in the morning
  • Headache in early morning after waking up
  • Have difficulty at school or behavioural difficulty
  • Moody, irritable
  • Inattention
  • Have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Daytime sleepiness

 

How to treat sleep apnea in children

Most children suffering from sleep apnea could be cured by surgical excision of the tonsils and adenoid. It is considered to be a low risk surgical procedure.

When Surgery is considered inappropriate, a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment will be considered. The setting of the CPAP treatment has to be determined by a proper overnight sleep test.

Children suffering from mild sleep apnea may also improve with medical treatment.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Choosing The Best Course Of Treatment For Hypopharyngeal Cancer

Cancer is a disease that has been around for centuries, and it’s a murderer of people all around the world. Diagnosing cancer can be an arduous process, as doctors must thoroughly examine the patient to diagnose the type and severity of their cancer along with what treatments they can offer. Here take a look on the treatment options for hypopharyngeal cancer and choosing the best treatment.

 

Treatment options for hypopharyngeal cancer

There are a number of different treatment options to choose from for hypopharyngeal cancer. Some patients may only receive radiation therapy while others may require surgery. Others may also need chemotherapy. The treatment plan is customized based on the type of cancer, its location, and other factors like whether or not it has spread to nearby tissue.

 

Choosing the best treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer

The best treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer is based on the stage and type of cancer, as well as your general health. The most common treatments for hypopharyngeal cancer are radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to shrink or eliminate cells that continue to grow after surgery or other treatments. Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that targets all rapidly dividing cells in the body.

 

Supportive care during and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer

If you or someone you love is diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer, it’s important to understand the many options available for treatment, including surgery and cancer-specific therapies. Make sure to consider supportive care during and after treatment as well. This can include help with eating and drinking, swallowing difficulties, and pain control.

 

Prognosis of Hypopharyngeal Cancer

The prognosis of hypopharyngeal cancer is typically poor. The average five-year survival rate is around 27%. However, this number may be misleading because the only people who are generally eligible for standard treatments are those with localized cancers that can be surgically removed or those whose tumors don’t obstruct the upper esophagus.

 

Know the side effects of each treatment course

Side effects depend on the type of treatment that is chosen. Radiation and chemotherapy can cause nausea, fatigue, and temporary hair loss. Surgery can lead to infection, blood clots, and nerve damage. Combining treatments might present risks not seen with one treatment course alone.

 

Know what to expect during each phase of your treatment

Your doctor will decide on the best course of treatment based on your age, the size and location of the tumor, and your overall fitness. Some treatments can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Treatment options depend on how serious your disease is.

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Lymphoma Symptoms and Prevention

Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune cells found in various parts of the body including under your arms, groin or near your collar bone. This article will provide tips on what are the symptoms of lymphoma, how you can prevent it and how to diagnose it if you think you have this disease.

 

The Symptoms of Lymphoma

Having a sore or swollen lymph node is not an accurate sign of cancer, however it can be a sign of something more serious. If you have been experiencing night sweats, weight loss, persistent cough or pain in the abdomen for more than one week, it may be time to visit your ENT doctor.

 

The Role of Diet in Lymphoma Prevention

Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The risk for this type of cancer is very low, but it’s important to do what you can to prevent it. A healthy diet is one of the most important things you can do to lower your risk of developing lymphoma. Lifestyle factors are also important, including smoking cessation, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting alcohol consumption.

 

Other Factors that Increase Risk for Lymphoma

It is important to know the risk factors that can increase your chances of getting lymphoma. These include age, race or ethnicity, family history, and exposure to other cancers such as breast cancer. Smoking and drinking alcohol can also increase the risk for this type of cancer.

 

Prevention of Lymphoma

In order to prevent lymphoma, you should practice good hygiene and avoid contact with people who have had the disease. You should also avoid radiation and hazardous chemicals, which can cause an increased risk of contracting lymphoma. Finally, make sure to be vaccinated. The only way to prevent lymphoma is to not smoke. Researchers have found that non-smoking adults are 10 times less likely to develop lymphoma. The risk of developing this blood cancer then decreases by 6% for every additional year that an adult doesn’t smoke. If you are a smoker, it’s even more important to stop smoking.

 

The Diagnosis of Lymphoma

When lymphoma becomes active, it starts to grow in the lymph nodes. The diagnosis is difficult because the disease can be localized, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. The tumor might only be millimeters in size, but cause other symptoms like weight loss or fever. If you have one or more of these symptoms, see your ENT doctor for an examination and possible blood work. The next step is to do a biopsy of the lymph nodes. The doctor will take out a small tissue sample, usually with a needle , and look at it under a microscope. If the doctor says you have lymphoma, you will probably need other tests to find out which type you have. The doctor might also do a biopsy of the tumor to find out how fast it is growing. A sample will be removed, and it will be tested to find out how fast the tumor is growing, and what kind of cells it starts from. This will help the doctor decide your treatment .

 

How is lymphoma treated? Once you have been diagnosed with lymphoma, your doctor will decide which kind of treatment to use. The type of treatment you receive depends on the type of lymphoma you have, how big and how fast your tumor grows, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Facts About Thyroidectomy Surgery

It is estimated that about one in fifty people are diagnosed with thyroid cancer at some point. Many of these patients may be advised to undergo thyroidectomy surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. This article discusses the pros and cons of thyroid surgery, including things to consider when in doubt.

 

What is a thyroidectomy?

Thyroidectomy is surgery that involves the removal of the entire thyroid gland or parts of the gland. Indications for surgery include hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, thyroid lymphoma, and goiter.

 

Reasons for a thyroidectomy

There are many benefits to this surgery, for instance it is a less invasive procedure with few risks involved in comparison to other surgeries. It is most often needed for cancer. If cancer is not present, it can be done as a treatment for enlarged thyroids or benign tumors. It’s also common for hyperthyroidism.

For most people, a special diet after a thyroidectomy is not necessary. It is likely to eat softer foods and drink normally the morning after surgery.

 

What are the side effects of thyroid surgery?

After a total thyroidectomy, the entire thyroid gland is removed and no hormone needed to control the body’s metabolic processes is supplied. Hence, the patient will take lifelong thyroid hormone replacements. She might also have to take supplements to balance the calcium levels.

After a thyroid lobectomy, the patient needs to have her thyroid hormone levels checked and will be prescribed a thyroid hormone replacement, if needed.

In the weeks after surgery, the patient may have a temporary neck pain, soreness of the vocal chords or a weak voice.

Besides, the surgery can result in hypothyroidism, which means the patient will need to take medication for the rest of their life. The other major complication is damage to nerves or vessels during the process, leading to reduced blood flow to the vocal cords, which may cause significant voice problems. Post-operative care can also be difficult because patients are more prone to infection.

After surgery, the thyroid gland needs to be closely monitored. This is done with a series of blood tests and ultrasound scans. Thyroid hormone levels may need to be adjusted, and patients will usually need to take thyroid hormone for the rest of their lives. Patients who keep their thyros naturally active and do not have problems can take control of their health by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and taking supplements.

 

What is recovery like after thyroid surgery?

After the thyroidectomy or thyroid lobectomy, the patient may have a temporary sore throat, neck pain, difficulty swallowing or a weak voice.

Her diet will be restricted for the evening of the surgery, but generally can return to normal the next day.

Most people may return home within one day of surgery, but take off about two weeks from work to recover. It needs to refrain from heavy lifting or other tasks that can strain the neck for up to three weeks after surgery. Soaking or scrubbing the site of your incision is also discouraged for at least one week to allow it time to properly heal. Showering is generally allowed after about one day.

Pain at the site of the incision will improve after a few days but may continue for a week.

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Choosing The Right Treatment For Your Child’s Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Cancer is a word that strikes fear into the hearts of many people, but the reality is that the majority of cancer cases are curable. In this article, we’ll be exploring several different treatment options for childhood nasopharyngeal cancer and how to choose the right one for your child.

 

What is nasopharyngeal cancer?

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a rare type of cancer that begins in the upper part of the throat, or nasopharynx. It’s often caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but can also be caused by other viruses, chemicals, and even radiation. These cancers are usually found at an early stage because they often cause symptoms like stuffy nose, sore throat, hoarseness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. It is more common in teens than in children younger than 10 years of age.

 

Treatment Option Overview

There are different types of treatment for children with nasopharyngeal cancer. Some are standard treatment currently used, and some are being tested in clinical trials to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments.

 

Four types of standard treatment:

  1. Chemotherapy

It is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

 

  1. Radiation therapy

It is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing.

 

  1. Surgery

Surgery is used to remove the tumor if the tumor has not spread throughout the nasal cavity and throat at the time of diagnosis. If a mass is small, it can be removed with an endoscope, a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end. If it’s larger, a surgeon will make an incision in the skin. The mass may be removed in pieces with a very small tool and then put back together.

 

  1. Immunotherapy

It is a type of biologic therapy treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Several types of immunotherapy are being used to treat children with nasopharyngeal cancer:

(1) Interferon may stop cancer cells from growing and it may also help kill cancer cells.

(2) EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are a type of immune cell that can kill certain cells, including foreign cells, cancer cells, and cells infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. They are being studied to treat refractory or recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer.

(3) Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy blocks certain proteins. PD-1 is a protein on the surface of T cells that helps keep the body’s immune responses in check. PD-L1 is a protein found on some types of cancer cells. When PD-1 attaches to PD-L1, it stops the T cell from killing the cancer cell. PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors keep PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins from attaching to each other. This allows the T cells to kill cancer cells. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are types of PD-1 inhibitors that have been used to treat adults with refractory nasopharyngeal cancer and may be considered to treat children.

 

The right treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer will depend on the size of the cancer, how fast it’s growing, and where it’s located. The most common treatments are surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy with radiation therapy, or radiation therapy alone. More uncommon treatments include stem-cell transplantation.

Usually, treatment of newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal cancer in children may include the following:

  • Chemotherapy followed by chemotherapy and external radiation therapy given at the same time. Interferon may also be given.
  • Chemotherapy followed by external radiation therapy.
  • Surgery to remove the tumor.

 

Side effects that go away after treatment include:

Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of many different medicines and treatments. These side effects may lessen after the child finish treatment.

Pain, sore pink skin, bleeding and swelling are also common side effects of radiation therapy. These side effects usually go away after treatment ends.

 

Considerations when choosing a treatment for a child

Children are typically not able to make decisions related to their treatment. In order to make a decision, you will need to consult with your child’s team of doctors and therapists. You will also need to take into account the location of the tumor as this can affect the type of treatment that is available. Depending on the severity of treatment, you may be able to take it back home with you.

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Nasopharyngeal Cancer: An Introduction to the Causes and Risk Factors

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a type of cancer that begins in cells in the nasopharynx. This is the area in the upper part of your throat and behind the nose. It is also known as NPC and is the most common type of head and neck cancer in Hong Kong. The cells will then start to grow into nearby lymph nodes in the rear of the mouth and continue to spread into other parts of the body.

Have you started to think about the causes of Nasopharyngeal cancer?

Have you asked yourself if there are risk factors for this disease?

Can Nasopharyngeal cancer be prevented?

If so, then read the following article.

 

Causes of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Scientists are not sure what exactly causes nasopharyngeal cancer. However, the cancer has been strongly linked to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

Other risks are living or working in a region with an increased incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer, chronic sinusitis, prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide gas, and family history.

 

Risk Factors

The risk factors for nasopharyngeal cancer are not widely understood and very few studies have been done in this area. Consequently, we know that nasopharyngeal cancer is more common in rural areas and that it is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The risk for nasopharyngeal cancer goes up if eating a diet rich in salt-cured fish and meat. It may also be associated with smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol although their link to the cancer is not clear. Some scientists believe that chemicals in these things further damage the DNA in cells.

 

Who is likely to get Nasopharyngeal cancer ?

  • those with nasopharyngeal cancer are men (about 80%) in general;
  • those who smoke or were exposed to second-hand smoke at a young age;
  • those who drink a lot of alcohol;
  • those with a family history of nasopharyngeal cancer;
  • those with a weakened immune system due to HIV/AIDS, or other diseases, or medical treatments such as chemotherapy or transplant;
  • those who have come in contact with EBV;
  • those exposed to certain chemicals, such as arsenic or phenol;
  • those who live in regions of China, Africa and South America.

 

Nasopharyngeal Cancer Symptoms

Symptoms of nasopharyngeal cancer may include:

  • Lump in neck
  • Blurry or double vision
  • Ear infections that recur
  • Face pain or numbness
  • Headache
  • Hearing loss, ringing in the ears, or a feeling of fullness in the ear
  • Difficulty opening mouth
  • Nosebleeds
  • Stuffy nose
  • Sore throat

As such symptoms are commonly found with many other diseases, it is suggested to see your ENT doctor for further diagnosis when you see the above symptoms.

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

The Stages of Laryngeal Cancer and Their Treatment Options

Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that arises from the lining of the larynx. This part of the body includes the vocal cords, the esophagus, and the upper part of the windpipe. It can lead to serious complications if it’s not diagnosed early enough. Symptoms may include coughing up blood, feeling like one’s breathing passage might close off, hoarseness, pain in swallowing, voice changes, or trouble speaking. This article offers an overview on the stages of laryngeal cancer, its treatment options, and how to spot the first signs.

 

Stages of Laryngeal Cancer

Staging classifies a cancer based on how much cancer there is in the body and where it is when first diagnosed. Information from tests is used to find out the size of the tumour, which parts of the organ have cancer, whether the cancer has spread from where it first started and where the cancer has spread. Your ENT doctor uses the stage to plan treatment and estimate the outcome.

For laryngeal cancer, there are 5 stages – stage 0 followed by stages 1 to 4. The higher the stage number, the more the cancer has spread.

Some doctors may also use the following terms when discussing laryngeal cancer:

  • Stage 0: The cancer is only in the inner lining of the larynx.
  • Early stage: It includes stages 1 and 2.
  • Locally advanced: It means stage 3.
  • Advanced stage: It means stage 4.

 

Laryngeal cancer staging is very complicated since it is based on where the cancer starts in the larynx. There are unique descriptions for stages 1, 2 and 3 for cancer that starts above the vocal cords, in the vocal cords and below the vocal cords in the larynx. The stage 4 description is the same regardless of where the cancer started.

 

Treatment Options for Laryngeal Cancer

The different stages of the cancer correspond to the different areas that it has spread to. Treatment options can vary depending on where in the neck or head the cancer is (e.g., local treatment only, radiation and chemotherapy).

 

Local treatment of laryngeal cancer

When laryngeal cancer is diagnosed early, the most common treatment option is local treatment. For more advanced cancers, it may be necessary to remove the larynx and nearby lymph nodes. Surgery can also be done in stages: first removing the area where the tumor is located and then removing nearby lymph nodes that may contain cancer cells.

 

Radiation of laryngeal cancer

Radiation therapy is a technique that delivers high energy rays to tumors in order to decrease their size and limit damage to the surrounding tissue. The rays are controlled carefully so they don’t cause any damage to healthy cells or organs. The process usually requires many sessions over an extended period of time. Radiation therapy is often used in the later stages of the disease when it has metastasized, but it can also be used in early stages when there are few tumor cells present.

 

Chemotherapy of laryngeal cancer

Treatment of laryngeal cancer typically involves some form of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Surgery may be done to remove the cancerous cells, along with some surrounding tissue for safety. Chemotherapy is one way to destroy laryngeal cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. Radiation therapy delivers high-energy rays directly into the tumor in order to kill any remaining cells.

 

In research, most cases of laryngeal cancer are diagnosed early because most patients have a persistent cough. The most effective treatment method is surgical removal of the tumor. The best way to decrease the risk of larynx cancer is by avoiding smoking. Quitting smoking before the age of 40 lowers the risk significantly. Other points to note about laryngeal cancer are that it’s more common in males than females and that it can be caused by other factors such as alcohol consumption, exposure to certain chemical fumes, and human papillomavirus.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Laryngeal Cancer Symptoms: Who Should Be Concerned?

Laryngeal Cancer symptoms are symptoms that may indicate the presence of cancer in the larynx. Find out in this article about symptoms to watch for, what to do if you suspect something’s wrong, and who is at risk for Laryngeal Cancer.

 

What is Laryngeal Cancer?

Laryngeal cancer is a cancer that starts in the larynx, which is the organ in the throat that enables us to breathe and speak. Cancers can develop anywhere on the larynx, but they typically start in the vocal cords or nodules. Symptoms of laryngeal cancer include hoarseness, coughing up blood, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, weight loss, and sometimes neck swelling.

 

Causes of Laryngeal Cancer

The most common cause of laryngeal cancer is smoking. As mentioned, the risk is much higher in people who smoke and drink heavily than for those who don’t. Another risk factor is exposure to asbestos and other substances, particularly in the workplace.

Are there any symptoms of laryngeal cancer?

 

Symptoms of Laryngeal Cancer

Symptoms of laryngeal cancer vary depending on the type. Some of the most common symptoms of early-stage laryngeal cancer are a persistent, chronic cough and hoarseness. These symptoms can be a result of other conditions as well, so the ENT doctor may conduct a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Early to mid-stage laryngeal cancer can cause ear pain, difficulty swallowing, difficulty breathing and a sore throat.

 

Who Is at Risk Of Getting Laryngeal Cancer?

Anyone who smokes, drinks a lot of alcohol, or has a weakened immune system is at higher risk for laryngeal cancer. Smoking has been shown to be one of the strongest risk factors for cancer of the larynx. People who smoke are 10 times more likely to get laryngeal cancer than those who never smoked.

 

Laryngeal cancer is not usually an aggressive form of cancer. It can be curable with treatment, but it’s important to see your ENT doctor when you notice laryngeal cancer symptoms like hoarseness, pain in the throat when swallowing food, or head and neck pain.

 

Did you find the information useful? If so, continue reading our posts.

 

For details of our ENT services, diagnosis, and treatment, please consult our ENT specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

https://www.hkentspecialist.hk

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