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ENT Knowledge Base (Chinese)

ENT Knowledge Base

ENT diseases and health

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Current Management of Meniere’s Disease

The 411 HKDU Sunday Afternoon Symposium
Topics: Current Management of Meniere’s Disease
Date: 17 November 2019 (Sunday)
Speakers: Dr. Chow Chun Kuen Specialist in ENT

 

For details of the treatment, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist. Phone no  (852) 3100 0555

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

 

 

Do You Have Nasopharyngeal Cancer? What is its Symptoms?

There are many types of cancer, and you may have nasopharyngeal cancer if malignant cancer cells develop in the tissues of your nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the throat located behind your nose.

 

Symptoms of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

If you have nasopharyngeal cancer, you may show the following symptoms:

  • A lump in the neck or nose
  • Difficulty breathing or speaking
  • Headaches
  • Hearing difficulties
  • Nosebleeds
  • Pain or ringing in the ear
  • Sore throat

It’s true that these symptoms may also be caused by other conditions. However, if these symptoms persist then you should see a ENT doctor especially if risk factors apply in your case.

 

Risk Factors for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

A risk factor is a condition which increases your chances of getting a disease. These risk factors increase the chances that you will develop nasopharyngeal cancer.

  • You’re Asian.
  • You drink large amounts of alcohol on a regular basis.
  • You’ve been exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus.

If any of these risk factors are true in your case and you exhibit any of the symptoms, then the chances are greater those symptoms are due to nasopharyngeal cancer.

 

Procedures and Tools to Diagnose Nasopharyngeal Cancer

The doctor can examine your nose, throat, and other nearby organs to find out if you have nasopharyngeal cancer:

  • Physical exam and history. This will include checking for swollen lymph nodes.
  • Neurological exam. This checks the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function.
  • Biopsy. Cells or tissues are removed to check for signs of cancer under a microscope.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create a series of highly detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
  • CT scan (CAT scan). This also creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, using a computer linked to an x-ray machine and injected dye to make the tissues and organs show up more clearly in the pictures.
  • PET scan (positron emission tomography scan). This finds malignant tumor cells using injected radioactive glucose and a PET scanner creating a picture of where the glucose is in the body. The malignant tumor cells tend to appear brighter in the PET pictures.
  • Ultrasound exam. This procedure uses high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) to bounce off the organs in the abdomen. The resulting echoes can form a picture of the body tissues.
  • Chest x-ray. The x-ray focus on the organs and bones inside the chest.
  • Blood chemistry studies. A blood sample is taken to check for unusual amounts of certain substances.
  • Complete blood count (CBC). The blood sample is checked for number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; the amount of hemoglobin (in the red blood cells; the percentage of red blood cells making up the total blood sample.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) test. It checks for the presence of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus, which would appear if you’ve been infected with EBV.
  • HPV test (human papillomavirus test). It checks if you have an HPV infection, as this can cause nasopharyngeal cancer.

Hearing test. Nasopharyngeal cancer can affect your hearing ability.

 

 

For details of the treatment, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What You Have to Know about Esophagus Cancer

Ask an ordinary person about cancer they may immediately think about lung or breast cancer. Very few people will think about esophageal cancer (esophagus cancer). But this condition ranked as the tenth deadliest cancer in the US, as it was responsible for ending 66,659 lives from 2003 to 2007. Worldwide, it’s ranked as the 6th most common cause of cancer deaths.

 

The esophagus is a long and hollow tube that goes from your throat down to your stomach. Its functions include moving the food you swallow to reach your stomach for digestion.

 

Development of Esophageal Cancer

When esophageal cancer develops, it begins in the cells lining the inside of the esophagus. The formerly healthy cells grow out of control and they form a mass called a tumor. If the tumor is cancerous, it can then grow and spread to other parts of the body. The cancer starts more specifically in the inner layer of the esophageal wall, and it can spread through the wall and into the lymph nodes. It can also spread to other parts of the body, including the stomach, liver, and lungs.

 

Types of Esophageal Cancer

There are 2 major types of esophageal cancer. However, treatment for both is similar though they will depend on several other factors.

If it is squamous cell carcinoma, the esophageal cancer starts in the squamous cells that line the esophagus. It usually grows in the upper and middle part of the esophagus.

If it is adenocarcinoma, it starts in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus. This is where the esophagus and the stomach come together.

 

Symptoms

In the early stages of esophageal cancer, it’s common that there are no signs or symptoms. However, in the later stages the following symptoms are typical:

  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
  • Unintentional Weight loss
  • Chest pain, pressure or burning
  • Worsening indigestion or heartburn
  • Coughing or hoarseness

If any of these symptoms persist, then it’s recommended that you see an ENT doctor.

 

Risk Factors

There are several factors that may increase the risk of esophageal cancer:

  • Gender. Men are 3 to 4 times more likely to get the disease.
  • Age. You’re at the highest risk of developing esophageal cancer if you’re between 45 to 70 years old.
  • Race. Black people are twice more likely than white people to develop squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Heavy drinking. Excessive consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time increases the chances of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Smoking. Any form of tobacco use can increase the risk of esophageal cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma in particular.
  • Obesity. Having too much body fat increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Poor nutrition. If you don’t have enough fruits and vegetables in your diet, you may lack certain vitamins and minerals and you increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

 

As ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

4 Common Reasons You’re Losing Your Voice

If your voice is normally clear and easily understood, it can be a bit of a concern when it becomes somewhat husky. But it can be downright alarming when that husky voice turns to unintelligible croaking while you’re trying to talk. Our ability to speak is one of our most important abilities, and losing that ability can make you feel frustrated during the course of the day.

 

Here are some of the more common causes of losing your voice:

1.      You’re a Smoker

You really should quit smoking, and the prospect of losing your voice is just one of the risks of continuing this deadly habit. Studies have shown that smokers are 3 times more like to have a problem with their voice compared to nonsmokers.

 

Smoking can cause the development of a small non-cancerous growth on your vocal chords. This growth is called a polyp, and it can turn your voice lower, hoarse, and breathy. The cigarette smoke can also irritate your vocal chords. When this happens frequently enough as you maintain your smoking habit, you can develop long-term issues about your voice.

 

2.      You’re Using Your Voice Too Much

You probably know that when you overuse your muscles when you work out, you can strain or injure those muscles. The same is true when you’re using the wrong workout techniques. But when you talk or sing, you’re also using muscles in your mouth and throat. So if you talk or sing too much within a period of time, you may lose your voice due to fatigue or strain. You may not even be speaking or singing properly with the right techniques, which can also lead to your voice loss.

 

3.      You Have a Cold

The good news about losing your voice when you have a cold is that when you’ve recovered from your cold, you’ll gain your former voice back. You just have to drink plenty of fluids in the meantime while you rest your voice. A cold can make your vocal chords swell up, which can then change the way they vibrate and your voice will change as well. Your throat can also get sore and inflamed, and that can affect how much air you can breathe in to make your vocal chords vibrate.

 

4.      You Have Allergies

Having your vocal chords swell up is a possible allergic reaction. The allergies can cause postnasal drip that moves mucus into your throat to irritate your vocal chords. If you keep on coughing or clearing your throat, this can strain your vocal chords as well.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Facts about the Semicircular Canals

It’s easy enough to assume that if a part of the human body is inside the ear, then it must help a person to hear in some way. But that’s not necessarily true of the semicircular canals, which are part of the inner ear. Instead, they help a person maintain a sense of balance.

 

The Cilia and the Endolymph

The semicircular canals inside the inner ear are lined with cilia. These are very tiny hairs, and they’re filled with a liquid substance that’s called endolymph.

Whenever you move your head, the liquid endolymph moves much like the water in a cup moves when you move the cup. The endolymph in turn moves the cilia. The cilia movements are then communicated to your brain, which makes the cilia function as some sort of motion sensor. The brain interprets the information from the cilia and instinctively sends messages to the rest of the body so that your body can keep its balance, regardless of your posture.

 

3 Parts of the Semicircular Canals

It’s fair to describe the semicircular canals as a grouping of 3 tiny tubes or canals filled with fluid. These are the anterior, posterior, and horizontal canals. Every one of these canals gives a distinct sense of directional balance, and each canal on one ear works with its counterpart in the other ear. The anterior canal senses head movements that go forward and back, such as if you’re nodding your head. The posterior canal senses head tilts, such as if you tip your head toward your right shoulder. The horizontal canal senses the horizontal movement of your head, such when you swivel your head from side to side.

 

The Spinning Game

You may remember a children’s game in which you spin in place for an extended period of time and then right after you’re supposed to walk in a straight line. Most children (and adults for that matter) find it difficult to maintain their balance as they try to walk in a straight line. The reason for this is that after you’re done spinning in place, the liquid inside the canals are still moving. The cilia still detect the movement of the liquid, like how your coffee is still moving even after you’re done stirring it with a spoon.

The microscopic hairs continue to tell your brain that you’re still spinning even when you’ve already stopped. These conflicting reports result in your rather poor sense of balance. This is also the reason why you may feel dizzy during car trips and amusement park rides. It’s not an inherent weakness on your part. It’s just that your ears, or at least your semicircular canals, are working as they’re sup

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What You Have to Know about Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is there’s an inflammation in the nose caused by the reaction of the human immune system to the presence of allergens in the air. Allergen can be pet dander, dust mites, mold, or pollen. For many people, these are actually harmless substances. But for other people, these particles cause an overreaction of the immune system that leads to allergic rhinitis.

 

According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI), about 8% of the US adult population have some type of allergic rhinitis. Experts also estimate that 10% to 30% of the worldwide population currently have allergic rhinitis as well.

 

Common Symptoms

Here are some of the more typical symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  • sneezing
  • runny, stuffy, or itchy nose
  • coughing
  • sore or scratchy throat
  • itchy or watery eyes
  • dark circles under the eyes
  • having extremely dry, itchy skin that can blister and weep, and other symptoms similar to eczema
  • hives
  • excessive fatigue
  • frequent headaches

 

You may have at least one of these symptoms right after you come into contact with the allergen. The frequent headaches and the excess fatigue, however, may only develop after long-term exposure to the allergens.

 

For some people, these symptoms may be experienced all year long. This can certainly happen when nothing is done about removing the presence of the allergens from the patient or if the person is especially sensitive.

 

In other cases, a person may experience these symptoms very rarely. It may only happen during the times when they’re exposed to large amounts of the allergens.

 

Potential Allergens

The most common allergens are grass and tree pollens. Other typical allergens include mold, cat saliva, dust mites (found in dust), and pet dander (referring to old animal skin).

 

In the spring, tree and flower pollens become much more common. In the summer and fall, weeds and grasses produce more pollen. If you have hay fever at the same time each year, this can indicate what kinds of pollens you’re allergic to.

 

When you inhale or get into contact with any of these allergens, your immune system can react by releasing histamine. This is a chemical that the body naturally produces to protect the body against the allergens. However, it’s also the chemical that can cause allergic rhinitis.

 

Other Risk Factors

What makes a person more likely to get allergic rhinitis? Here are some risk factors that can increase your chances of getting hay fever:

 

  • air pollution and fumes
  • chemicals
  • cigarette or wood smoke
  • cold temperatures
  • hairspray
  • humidity
  • perfumes and colognes
  • wind

 

Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT doctor for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Do You Have Sinusitis or Allergies? What is the difference?

Some people have a stuffy nose that goes on for a few days, and they may think that they have sinusitis. Others immediately think they have allergies. There are even those who think that they’re the same problem, but that’s not really true.

 

The Different Causes

It’s true that your nose and sinuses become stuffed up when you have allergies or sinusitis. But it’s also true that your sinuses are stuffed for different reasons. If you are allergic to pet dander, dust mites, mold, and pollen, then your nose and your sinuses can swell up when you’re exposed to large amounts of these allergens. That’s because your nose and sinuses are trying to flush out these foreign particles.

 

Sinusitis is the condition in which the tissue lining of your sinuses have become inflamed or swollen. It’s true that this condition can arise when you have allergies. But your nose can become stuffy even if you don’t have allergies.

 

Symptoms of Allergies

Yes, with allergies you can have a stuffy nose as a result. But you can have other symptoms too. You may constantly sneeze while having a runny nose. Your eyes can become watery or itchy. You may even wheeze a lot.

 

You’ll start to feel these symptoms when you come into contact with the particles to which you’re allergic. The symptoms may not disappear until you’re no longer in contact with these allergens.

If you’re particularly allergic to pollen, then this can be a seasonal allergy. But it can happen at any time of the year if you’re allergic to dust mites, mold, or pet dander.

 

Symptoms of Sinusitis

With sinusitis, a stuffy nose is also just one of the symptoms that may present. You may determine that you have sinusitis when you find that your mucus has become thick and colored. You may have pain in your teeth, a headache, or a light fever. There may be a swollen, painful feeling around your cheeks, eyes, and forehead. Fatigue is possible as well.

 

You may have postnasal drip, when the excess mucus goes to the back of your nose and into your throat. Other symptoms include a sore throat, coughing, and bad breath.

These symptoms can appear after you’ve had allergies or a cold. Some of the symptoms can go on, even when you’re no longer in contact with the allergens or the cold has gone away. The stuffy nose, and in some cases the coughing, can last for a week or two.

 

If it lasts for less than 4 weeks, you have acute sinusitis. But if you have the symptoms for more than 3 months, it’s classified as chronic sinusitis.

 

Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What Are Pharyngeal Tonsils And Why Are They Important?

The pharyngeal tonsils are also known as the adenoids. They’re one of the 3 types of tonsils in your lymphatic system. The pharyngeal tonsils are basically clusters of lymphatic tissue that can be found in the back of the nose right above the roof of your mouth. However, someone can’t just find the pharyngeal tonsils simply by looking down your mouth.

 

Growth of Pharyngeal Tonsils

As a baby grows, so do their pharyngeal tonsils. But these reach their largest size when the child is between 3 to 5 years old. Then the pharyngeal tonsils begin to grow smaller as the child turns 7 or 8 years old. The adenoids are barely visible by the time the child reaches their late teens, and the pharyngeal tonsils completely disappear as the child becomes an adult.

 

Why Are Pharyngeal Tonsils Important?

The pharyngeal tonsils are important for children because they’re part of the first line of defense for the immune system and the human body. The pharyngeal tonsils feature small hairs called cilia that move in a rhythmic pattern. This movement helps to spread the mucus down the pharynx. The mucus is also part of the human body’s defense system, as it captures foreign particles such as dust and infectious bacteria. The pharyngeal tonsils help to carry the mucus to the stomach so the foreign particles can then be flushed away. The pharyngeal tonsils also help to create antibodies, and this is also one of their functions as part of the immune system.

 

Enlarged Adenoids

One of the more common problems for pharyngeal tonsils in children is enlarged adenoids. This can be a problem which a child is born with, or the pharyngeal tonsils can become swollen because of an infection.

The doctor can use x-rays to detect the condition. They also feel the throat for swelling or use an endoscope to check the inside of the throat.

 

When the pharyngeal tonsils are enlarged, they can block proper air flow and sinus drainage in the body. Sleep can be disrupted. The patient can experience restless sleep, sleep apnea, and snoring. The patient can also get a runny nose, cracked lips, dry mouth, ear infections, and bad breath. They may breathe loudly as well.

 

If the problem is temporary, the ENT doctor may prescribe over-the-counter pain killers along with a series of antibiotics or a nasal spray. The problem has to be treated because temporary enlarged adenoids can become a permanent condition.

 

The enlarged pharyngeal tonsils can also be removed using a process called adenoidectomy. This process is needed if the condition is causing long-term issues. The adenoidectomy needs only 30 minutes to complete.

 

Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Radiation Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

When cancer cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx (located in the upper part of the throat behind the nose), the condition is referred to as nasopharyngeal cancer. It is a type of head and neck cancer.

Among the signs of nasopharyngeal cancer include difficulties with hearing, talking, and breathing. The risk factors for the condition include having Asian ancestry, being exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus, and high consumption of alcohol. Doctors have to examine the nose, throat, and nearby organs to diagnose the disease and to determine its current stage.

 

Radiation therapy is one of the 3 standard treatment options for nasopharyngeal cancer. The other options are chemotherapy and surgery. In some cases, doctors may give chemotherapy after using radiation therapy, to kill off any remaining cancer cells.

 

There are 2 types of radiation therapy: external and internal.

External Radiation Therapy

In external radiation therapy, the doctors send radiation towards the cancer cells to kill them off, using a machine outside the body. It’s possible that external radiation therapy may change the way the thyroid gland works, if the therapy is applied to the pituitary gland or the thyroid. After the therapy, doctors can check that the thyroid gland is functioning properly. Before and after the therapy, the doctors can give a blood test to determine the thyroid hormone level in the patient’s blood. Some particular ways of providing radiation therapy can also target the cancer cells without doing damage to the adjacent healthy tissue. These include stereotactic radiation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

 

Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

This may also be called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.

The doctors attach a rigid head frame to the patient’s skull, to prevent the head from moving during the treatment. They then use a machine to aim the high-energy radiation straight to the tumor.

The total dose of the radiation isn’t given all at once. Instead, the radiation dose is divided into smaller doses, and they’re given over several days.

 

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

This is a type of 3D radiation therapy. It uses a computer to create images of the shape and size of the tumor. Thin streams of radiation with varying strengths (intensities) are directed at the tumor, coming from many different angles. One of the benefits of IMRT is that it’s less likely to cause dry mouth in the patient.

 

Internal Radiation Therapy

This method involves applying the radiation directly into the cancer, or at least near the cancer. In general, the doctors use catheters wires, needles, and even seeds, to seal in deliver the radioactive substance to the cancer cells.

 

If you wonder if you suffer from nasopharyngeal cancer, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What to Do When You’re Sensitive to Dust or Dust Allergy

You might think that being on the road can be a bad place to be when you have dust allergies. But in fact your home may be a more dangerous place for you when you’re allergic to dust. It’s even stranger when you consider how your allergy symptoms become worse when you’re dusting and vacuuming. But that’s because the dusting process stirs up the dust in the air, so you’re liable to inhale them more easily.

 

You can help minimize the problem by following these dust allergy management tips:

 

  • Clean your home regularly, preferably with a central vacuum or a vacuum with a HEPA filter.
  • It’s best if someone without the allergy does the cleaning. It should be done while the allergic person is away. The allergic person can then return after about 3 hours, as it can take more than 2 hours for the dust to settle.
  • If you’re doing the cleaning and you’re allergic, you should wear an N95 filter mask while you’re cleaning.
  • Avoid having wall-to-wall carpets in your home, especially in the bedroom. Carpets tend to be dust collectors. Better to go with wood flooring instead.
  • If you’re allergic, you must make sure that you keep your bedroom free from dust and other triggers. You should keep a HEPA air cleaner running in your bedroom all the time. Pet dogs and cats should never be allowed inside. Your mattresses and pillows must use “mite-proof” cases. You need to regularly wash all your bed linens, using hot water.
  • Cockroaches can also be a trigger for your allergy symptoms. If you have roaches in your home, you should try cockroach traps and use the services of a professional pest control service. If you have food outside the refrigerator, it must be covered. Food waste must be disposed of in a tightly sealed garbage bin.
  • In the furnace and the air conditioning unit, put in a high-efficiency media filter with a MERV rating of 11 or 12. Keep the fan running so the air filter can filter the air throughout the house. Keep the air clean by changing the filter every 3 months, as the seasons change.
  • Make sure your HVAC system is inspected and serviced by professionals every 6 months.
  • Use a hygrometer to measure the humidity in your home regularly. You need to keep the humidity below 55%. A dehumidifier can help, and you can put in a vent fan in your kitchen and bathrooms. Make sure you repair all water leaks immediately.

 

If you wonder if you suffers from dust allergy or others, it is suggested to consult an ENT doctor for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

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