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ENT Knowledge Base (Chinese)

ENT Knowledge Base

ENT diseases and health

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What To Do When You Experience An Ear Burning Sensation

It can be a bit discomfiting, to say the least, when you experience an ear burning sensation. This feeling of burning in or around your ears can make it feel tender, inflamed, and swollen. In fact, if you touch your ears they may be warm to the touch.

 

In many cases this feeling is due to an infection, because bacteria or viruses have entered your body. The redness, swelling, and warmth are caused by the response of your immune system. There’s a Eustachian tube that connects your ear to your throat and permits the drainage of fluid from your middle ear. But a problem can occur when this tube is blocked with fluid. The fluid buildup can cause the bacterial or viral infection, which then leads to the pain and swelling.

 

Other possible causes includes “swimmer’s ears” (otitis externa), which results from water getting into the outer ear canal. Allergies to earrings and skin conditions like eczema can also produce the symptoms of swimmer’s ears.

 

Taking Antibiotics

In some cases you can just take antibiotics to take care of the infection. Once the infection is taken care of, the sensation of ear burning goes away as well. In fact, in some cases these infections are resolved on their own as the human immune system does its job.

 

Seeking Medical Attention

However, there are cases when the cause of the sensation is much more serious. The problem may be caused by anaphylaxis, which is an allergic reaction that can be life-threatening. The problem may also be due to a ruptured eardrum or an infection of the bones behind the ear.

 

When the sensation of ear burning is also accompanied by any of the following symptoms, you should seek immediate medical care. That means calling 911 as the issue needs the attention of a medical professional ASAP. These additional symptoms include:

 

  • Swelling of the throat or any difficulty with breathing
  • High fever, meaning higher than 101 degrees F
  • Severe headaches
  • Severe pain
  • Redness and swelling of the skin around the ear
  • Tenderness or throbbing behind the ear, especially when this is over the bone

 

In fact, if the ear burning sensation is accompanied by any other symptom that causes you some type of concern, it’s better to play it safe and to seek medical care immediately.

The ENT doctor can then diagnose the underlying medical condition that’s causing the problem. The feeling of having your ears burning may be uncomfortable, but the underlying condition that caused that sensation may be much more serious and detrimental for your health.

 

As ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Doctor for the appropriate ENT services and treatment.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Possible Causes of Dysphagia

Doctors use the medical term dysphagia to refer to swallowing problems. This can mean having trouble swallowing certain drinks or food items, or being unable to swallow at all. It can be caused by any of the following underlying conditions:

 

Neurological Causes

If you suffer any damage to your nervous system (brain and spinal cord), this damage can interfere with the nerves involved in starting and controlling the swallowing movement. This type of damage can be caused by a stroke, brain tumors, or myasthenia gravis, which is a very uncommon condition that weakens muscles.

Some neurological conditions can do damage to the brain and nervous system over time. These conditions include dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and motor neurone disease.

 

Obstruction

If there’s an obstruction in the throat or the esophagus becomes too narrow, swallowing can become much more difficult. This type of problem can be caused by some type of throat or mouth cancer like laryngeal cancer or esophageal cancer. When the cancer has been treated, often the obstruction disappears as well.

Infections, such as thrush or tuberculosis, can also cause inflammation of the esophagus that can lead to swallowing difficulties. This is also true of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), when your esophagus becomes narrower due to stomach acid causing scar tissue to develop.

Other conditions that can cause an obstruction include eosinophilic oesophagitis and pharyngeal (throat) pouches. When you have eosinophilic oesophagitis, your body reacts to certain allergens by building up a type of white blood cell in the lining of the esophagus. This buildup damages the esophagus lining and causes the swallowing difficulties. With throat pouches, your esophagus develops a large sack that reduces your ability to swallow.

Even radiotherapy can also cause an obstruction in the esophagus. The treatment can lead to scar tissue that can narrow the passageway in the throat.

 

Congenital and Developmental Conditions

Children can have problems with dysphagia if they’re born with a cleft lip and palate. Cerebral palsy can also affect the movement and coordination of the body parts needed for swallowing. Learning difficulties may also make it difficult for some children to learn to swallow.

 

Muscular Conditions

Though it’s rare, it’s also possible that a medical condition can affect the muscles needed to push down the food into the esophagus and into the stomach. Achalasia is one such muscular condition that’s sometimes associated with dysphagia. This condition causes the muscles in the esophagus to lose their ability to relax and open to let food through.

Another potential problem is scleroderma. This is when the immune system attacks healthy tissue. This can cause a stiffening of the muscles in the throat and esophagus, leading to problems with swallowing.

 

As the ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT doctor for the appropriate ENT services and treatments.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Tracheitis: Annoyance or Dangerous Condition?

Tracheitis is an infection of the trachea, which is more commonly known as the windpipe. An infection in this part of the anatomy may seem like an annoyance, such as when a performance of “Manon Lescaut” by the noted soprano María José Siri was canceled due to tracheitis. But this isn’t as minor as it may seem at first. Hayden wrestling coach Chad Jones died of this infection because it was left unchecked. He thought that it was merely strep throat, and found out too late that it was tracheitis.

Tracheitis in Children and Adults

Although tracheitis is more known to strike children, these 2 examples show that it can affect adults as well. It is true that it’s more dangerous in children, because they have a smaller trachea and the swelling blocks the windpipe more easily. Yet as the case of Coach Chad Jones shows, it can also be fatal.

Causes and Symptoms

Most cases of tracheitis occur following a bout with the common cold or flu. At first the problem may be signified with a runny nose, a cough, or a low-grade fever. But then the bacteria can spread to the trachea and cause an infection, and this will then lead to breathing difficulties.

 

The more common symptoms afterwards include high fever, a deep severe cough, wheezing, nasal flaring, and a blue tinge to their skin called cyanosis. Stridor may also develop, and this is the high-pitched sound the patient may make when they breathe. When you have stridor, it’s a sign that the infection has turned serious and that the airway is already partially obstructed. This is a certain sign that medical attention is warranted.

Treatment Options

If left untreated, the condition may block the trachea completely, leading to respiratory arrest and death. If the infection was caused by the S. aureus bacteria, toxic shock syndrome may also develop. This is a condition that can lead to shock, organ failure, and death.

 

These reasons signify the need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Once tracheitis has been diagnosed, the doctor can give the patient antibiotics to kill the bacteria. These are typically administered intravenously.

 

Clearing the airway will also be a priority. To help the patient breathe, the doctor may have to insert an endotracheal tube into the trachea of the patient. This is called the intubation procedure. The tube, after it has been put into its proper position, will then be connected to a ventilator. This will help improve the lung function while the patient is recovering from the infection.

Conclusion

Tracheitis must be treated by an ENT doctor as quickly as possible, even though it may seem like an annoying problem at first. If it is not treated right away, it can lead to serious complications—including death.

 

If you suffer an ENT problem, it is suggested to consult an ENT doctor for the appropriate ENT treatment. Please contact us for an appointment of our ENT services and consulation at 3100 0555.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Current Management of Meniere’s Disease

The 411 HKDU Sunday Afternoon Symposium
Topics: Current Management of Meniere’s Disease
Date: 17 November 2019 (Sunday)
Speakers: Dr. Chow Chun Kuen Specialist in ENT

 

For details of the treatment, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist. Phone no  (852) 3100 0555

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

 

 

Do You Have Nasopharyngeal Cancer? What is its Symptoms?

There are many types of cancer, and you may have nasopharyngeal cancer if malignant cancer cells develop in the tissues of your nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the throat located behind your nose.

 

Symptoms of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

If you have nasopharyngeal cancer, you may show the following symptoms:

  • A lump in the neck or nose
  • Difficulty breathing or speaking
  • Headaches
  • Hearing difficulties
  • Nosebleeds
  • Pain or ringing in the ear
  • Sore throat

It’s true that these symptoms may also be caused by other conditions. However, if these symptoms persist then you should see a ENT doctor especially if risk factors apply in your case.

 

Risk Factors for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

A risk factor is a condition which increases your chances of getting a disease. These risk factors increase the chances that you will develop nasopharyngeal cancer.

  • You’re Asian.
  • You drink large amounts of alcohol on a regular basis.
  • You’ve been exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus.

If any of these risk factors are true in your case and you exhibit any of the symptoms, then the chances are greater those symptoms are due to nasopharyngeal cancer.

 

Procedures and Tools to Diagnose Nasopharyngeal Cancer

The doctor can examine your nose, throat, and other nearby organs to find out if you have nasopharyngeal cancer:

  • Physical exam and history. This will include checking for swollen lymph nodes.
  • Neurological exam. This checks the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function.
  • Biopsy. Cells or tissues are removed to check for signs of cancer under a microscope.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create a series of highly detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
  • CT scan (CAT scan). This also creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, using a computer linked to an x-ray machine and injected dye to make the tissues and organs show up more clearly in the pictures.
  • PET scan (positron emission tomography scan). This finds malignant tumor cells using injected radioactive glucose and a PET scanner creating a picture of where the glucose is in the body. The malignant tumor cells tend to appear brighter in the PET pictures.
  • Ultrasound exam. This procedure uses high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) to bounce off the organs in the abdomen. The resulting echoes can form a picture of the body tissues.
  • Chest x-ray. The x-ray focus on the organs and bones inside the chest.
  • Blood chemistry studies. A blood sample is taken to check for unusual amounts of certain substances.
  • Complete blood count (CBC). The blood sample is checked for number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; the amount of hemoglobin (in the red blood cells; the percentage of red blood cells making up the total blood sample.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) test. It checks for the presence of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus, which would appear if you’ve been infected with EBV.
  • HPV test (human papillomavirus test). It checks if you have an HPV infection, as this can cause nasopharyngeal cancer.

Hearing test. Nasopharyngeal cancer can affect your hearing ability.

 

 

For details of the treatment, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What You Have to Know about Esophagus Cancer

Ask an ordinary person about cancer they may immediately think about lung or breast cancer. Very few people will think about esophageal cancer (esophagus cancer). But this condition ranked as the tenth deadliest cancer in the US, as it was responsible for ending 66,659 lives from 2003 to 2007. Worldwide, it’s ranked as the 6th most common cause of cancer deaths.

 

The esophagus is a long and hollow tube that goes from your throat down to your stomach. Its functions include moving the food you swallow to reach your stomach for digestion.

 

Development of Esophageal Cancer

When esophageal cancer develops, it begins in the cells lining the inside of the esophagus. The formerly healthy cells grow out of control and they form a mass called a tumor. If the tumor is cancerous, it can then grow and spread to other parts of the body. The cancer starts more specifically in the inner layer of the esophageal wall, and it can spread through the wall and into the lymph nodes. It can also spread to other parts of the body, including the stomach, liver, and lungs.

 

Types of Esophageal Cancer

There are 2 major types of esophageal cancer. However, treatment for both is similar though they will depend on several other factors.

If it is squamous cell carcinoma, the esophageal cancer starts in the squamous cells that line the esophagus. It usually grows in the upper and middle part of the esophagus.

If it is adenocarcinoma, it starts in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus. This is where the esophagus and the stomach come together.

 

Symptoms

In the early stages of esophageal cancer, it’s common that there are no signs or symptoms. However, in the later stages the following symptoms are typical:

  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
  • Unintentional Weight loss
  • Chest pain, pressure or burning
  • Worsening indigestion or heartburn
  • Coughing or hoarseness

If any of these symptoms persist, then it’s recommended that you see an ENT doctor.

 

Risk Factors

There are several factors that may increase the risk of esophageal cancer:

  • Gender. Men are 3 to 4 times more likely to get the disease.
  • Age. You’re at the highest risk of developing esophageal cancer if you’re between 45 to 70 years old.
  • Race. Black people are twice more likely than white people to develop squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Heavy drinking. Excessive consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time increases the chances of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Smoking. Any form of tobacco use can increase the risk of esophageal cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma in particular.
  • Obesity. Having too much body fat increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Poor nutrition. If you don’t have enough fruits and vegetables in your diet, you may lack certain vitamins and minerals and you increase the risk of esophageal cancer.

 

As ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

4 Common Reasons You’re Losing Your Voice

If your voice is normally clear and easily understood, it can be a bit of a concern when it becomes somewhat husky. But it can be downright alarming when that husky voice turns to unintelligible croaking while you’re trying to talk. Our ability to speak is one of our most important abilities, and losing that ability can make you feel frustrated during the course of the day.

 

Here are some of the more common causes of losing your voice:

1.      You’re a Smoker

You really should quit smoking, and the prospect of losing your voice is just one of the risks of continuing this deadly habit. Studies have shown that smokers are 3 times more like to have a problem with their voice compared to nonsmokers.

 

Smoking can cause the development of a small non-cancerous growth on your vocal chords. This growth is called a polyp, and it can turn your voice lower, hoarse, and breathy. The cigarette smoke can also irritate your vocal chords. When this happens frequently enough as you maintain your smoking habit, you can develop long-term issues about your voice.

 

2.      You’re Using Your Voice Too Much

You probably know that when you overuse your muscles when you work out, you can strain or injure those muscles. The same is true when you’re using the wrong workout techniques. But when you talk or sing, you’re also using muscles in your mouth and throat. So if you talk or sing too much within a period of time, you may lose your voice due to fatigue or strain. You may not even be speaking or singing properly with the right techniques, which can also lead to your voice loss.

 

3.      You Have a Cold

The good news about losing your voice when you have a cold is that when you’ve recovered from your cold, you’ll gain your former voice back. You just have to drink plenty of fluids in the meantime while you rest your voice. A cold can make your vocal chords swell up, which can then change the way they vibrate and your voice will change as well. Your throat can also get sore and inflamed, and that can affect how much air you can breathe in to make your vocal chords vibrate.

 

4.      You Have Allergies

Having your vocal chords swell up is a possible allergic reaction. The allergies can cause postnasal drip that moves mucus into your throat to irritate your vocal chords. If you keep on coughing or clearing your throat, this can strain your vocal chords as well.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Facts about the Semicircular Canals

It’s easy enough to assume that if a part of the human body is inside the ear, then it must help a person to hear in some way. But that’s not necessarily true of the semicircular canals, which are part of the inner ear. Instead, they help a person maintain a sense of balance.

 

The Cilia and the Endolymph

The semicircular canals inside the inner ear are lined with cilia. These are very tiny hairs, and they’re filled with a liquid substance that’s called endolymph.

Whenever you move your head, the liquid endolymph moves much like the water in a cup moves when you move the cup. The endolymph in turn moves the cilia. The cilia movements are then communicated to your brain, which makes the cilia function as some sort of motion sensor. The brain interprets the information from the cilia and instinctively sends messages to the rest of the body so that your body can keep its balance, regardless of your posture.

 

3 Parts of the Semicircular Canals

It’s fair to describe the semicircular canals as a grouping of 3 tiny tubes or canals filled with fluid. These are the anterior, posterior, and horizontal canals. Every one of these canals gives a distinct sense of directional balance, and each canal on one ear works with its counterpart in the other ear. The anterior canal senses head movements that go forward and back, such as if you’re nodding your head. The posterior canal senses head tilts, such as if you tip your head toward your right shoulder. The horizontal canal senses the horizontal movement of your head, such when you swivel your head from side to side.

 

The Spinning Game

You may remember a children’s game in which you spin in place for an extended period of time and then right after you’re supposed to walk in a straight line. Most children (and adults for that matter) find it difficult to maintain their balance as they try to walk in a straight line. The reason for this is that after you’re done spinning in place, the liquid inside the canals are still moving. The cilia still detect the movement of the liquid, like how your coffee is still moving even after you’re done stirring it with a spoon.

The microscopic hairs continue to tell your brain that you’re still spinning even when you’ve already stopped. These conflicting reports result in your rather poor sense of balance. This is also the reason why you may feel dizzy during car trips and amusement park rides. It’s not an inherent weakness on your part. It’s just that your ears, or at least your semicircular canals, are working as they’re sup

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

What You Have to Know about Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is there’s an inflammation in the nose caused by the reaction of the human immune system to the presence of allergens in the air. Allergen can be pet dander, dust mites, mold, or pollen. For many people, these are actually harmless substances. But for other people, these particles cause an overreaction of the immune system that leads to allergic rhinitis.

 

According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI), about 8% of the US adult population have some type of allergic rhinitis. Experts also estimate that 10% to 30% of the worldwide population currently have allergic rhinitis as well.

 

Common Symptoms

Here are some of the more typical symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  • sneezing
  • runny, stuffy, or itchy nose
  • coughing
  • sore or scratchy throat
  • itchy or watery eyes
  • dark circles under the eyes
  • having extremely dry, itchy skin that can blister and weep, and other symptoms similar to eczema
  • hives
  • excessive fatigue
  • frequent headaches

 

You may have at least one of these symptoms right after you come into contact with the allergen. The frequent headaches and the excess fatigue, however, may only develop after long-term exposure to the allergens.

 

For some people, these symptoms may be experienced all year long. This can certainly happen when nothing is done about removing the presence of the allergens from the patient or if the person is especially sensitive.

 

In other cases, a person may experience these symptoms very rarely. It may only happen during the times when they’re exposed to large amounts of the allergens.

 

Potential Allergens

The most common allergens are grass and tree pollens. Other typical allergens include mold, cat saliva, dust mites (found in dust), and pet dander (referring to old animal skin).

 

In the spring, tree and flower pollens become much more common. In the summer and fall, weeds and grasses produce more pollen. If you have hay fever at the same time each year, this can indicate what kinds of pollens you’re allergic to.

 

When you inhale or get into contact with any of these allergens, your immune system can react by releasing histamine. This is a chemical that the body naturally produces to protect the body against the allergens. However, it’s also the chemical that can cause allergic rhinitis.

 

Other Risk Factors

What makes a person more likely to get allergic rhinitis? Here are some risk factors that can increase your chances of getting hay fever:

 

  • air pollution and fumes
  • chemicals
  • cigarette or wood smoke
  • cold temperatures
  • hairspray
  • humidity
  • perfumes and colognes
  • wind

 

Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT doctor for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Do You Have Sinusitis or Allergies? What is the difference?

Some people have a stuffy nose that goes on for a few days, and they may think that they have sinusitis. Others immediately think they have allergies. There are even those who think that they’re the same problem, but that’s not really true.

 

The Different Causes

It’s true that your nose and sinuses become stuffed up when you have allergies or sinusitis. But it’s also true that your sinuses are stuffed for different reasons. If you are allergic to pet dander, dust mites, mold, and pollen, then your nose and your sinuses can swell up when you’re exposed to large amounts of these allergens. That’s because your nose and sinuses are trying to flush out these foreign particles.

 

Sinusitis is the condition in which the tissue lining of your sinuses have become inflamed or swollen. It’s true that this condition can arise when you have allergies. But your nose can become stuffy even if you don’t have allergies.

 

Symptoms of Allergies

Yes, with allergies you can have a stuffy nose as a result. But you can have other symptoms too. You may constantly sneeze while having a runny nose. Your eyes can become watery or itchy. You may even wheeze a lot.

 

You’ll start to feel these symptoms when you come into contact with the particles to which you’re allergic. The symptoms may not disappear until you’re no longer in contact with these allergens.

If you’re particularly allergic to pollen, then this can be a seasonal allergy. But it can happen at any time of the year if you’re allergic to dust mites, mold, or pet dander.

 

Symptoms of Sinusitis

With sinusitis, a stuffy nose is also just one of the symptoms that may present. You may determine that you have sinusitis when you find that your mucus has become thick and colored. You may have pain in your teeth, a headache, or a light fever. There may be a swollen, painful feeling around your cheeks, eyes, and forehead. Fatigue is possible as well.

 

You may have postnasal drip, when the excess mucus goes to the back of your nose and into your throat. Other symptoms include a sore throat, coughing, and bad breath.

These symptoms can appear after you’ve had allergies or a cold. Some of the symptoms can go on, even when you’re no longer in contact with the allergens or the cold has gone away. The stuffy nose, and in some cases the coughing, can last for a week or two.

 

If it lasts for less than 4 weeks, you have acute sinusitis. But if you have the symptoms for more than 3 months, it’s classified as chronic sinusitis.

 

Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

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