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ENT Knowledge Base (Chinese)

ENT Knowledge Base

Children ENT Problem

Things To Know About Acute Suppurative Otitis Media

Acute otitis media is a common infection in children, and it’s a treatable one. But it can develop into more serious forms of infection like acute suppurative otitis media. Here’s basic information that every parent should know in order to seek medical attention for their children’s middle ear infection as soon as possible.

 

 

General Definitions

First off, otitis media is the inflammation of the middle ear wherein fluid becomes trapped in it. This is typically a result of the flu, the common cold, and other respiratory conditions wherein the Eustachian tube swells resulting in fluid buildup. Adults rarely get it but it’s a common condition in children, especially in younger ones.

 

 

Its common symptoms include:

  • Earache, often accompanied by tugging and pulling at the affected ear to relieve the discomfort or pain
  • Clear fluid in the ears
  • Fever of 100°od higher
  • Restlessness and/or fussiness
  • Irritability

 

 

According to the ICD-9-CM code assignment, otitis media is classified into:

  • Acute otitis media refers to the sudden and severe onset of the infection, which can be caused by either bacteria or virus
  • Chronic otitis media pertains to a prolonged infection lasting for several weeks with little to no sign of clearing up. It may be caused to the buildup of fluid behind the eardrum resulting from repeated infections.
  • Suppurative otitis media is characterized by fluid buildup accompanied by the formation of pus in the middle ear.
  • Non-suppurative otitis media doesn’t have push formation.

 

 

With this in mind, acute suppurative otitis media is the sudden and severe onset of viral or bacterial infection in the middle ear accompanied by the buildup of pus. From the description alone, parents are understandably worried about its complications, especially with delayed treatment. The middle ear, after all, is a fragile part and infections in it should be addressed promptly.

 

 

Differentiation Between Suppurative and Secretory Otitis Media

There’s another differentiation between these types of otitis media. In acute suppurative otitis media, the purulent fluid contains pathogenic bacteria that contributes to the spread of the infection and the worsening of the symptoms. In fact, the only positive way to diagnose the infection is through the aspiration of the fluid but it must also be emphasized that it’s rarely necessary for its initial diagnosis and treatment.

 

 

In secretory otitis media, the fluid usually doesn’t contain pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The fluid can be one of two types: first, serous, a fluid with a thin quality and a straw color; and second, mucoid, a fluid with a thick consistency and a translucent gray color.

 

 

The differentiation between the different types of otitis media is important because there will be differences in each one’s treatment and management.  With acute suppurative otitis media, for example antibiotics will be definitely necessary to stop the growth of bacteria.

 

 

If your child has the ENT issue, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre for ENT Services. Please call us and make an appointment at 3100 0555.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Treating a Tonsil or Adenoid Inflammation or Infection

Unless you were a very healthy child, there’s a good chance that you’ve missed a few days of school when you were little because of tonsilitis or adenoiditis. These conditions are fairly common in young kids as these body parts tend to shrink and disappear as a child get older. They’re pretty much the baby versions of sore throat that need immediate action.

 

 

What is a Tonsil or Adenoid Inflammation or Infection?

Tonsillitis or the inflammation or infection of the tonsils is the condition where the soft tissue mass in the throat becomes inflamed and infected. It’s characterized by some swelling and redness.

 

 

Adenoiditis, on the other hand, is the inflammation or infection of the adenoids or the lymphocyte-containing tissue at the back of your nasal cavity. It’s also characterized by swelling and redness.

 

 

Both the tonsils and adenoids serve protective purposes. As they both contain lymphocytes or the white blood cells that fight off bacterial and viral infections, they can really help keep the body in top shape. However, they’re not completely bulletproof which is why they also get infected. Both conditions are more common in children but can also be experienced by adults, especially tonsillitis.

 

 

Adenoiditis, however, is said to be more noticeable in children. Aside from being more common in children than adults, it can also block nasal passages, making its urgent treatment necessary.

 

 

Common Causes of Tonsillitis and Adenoiditis

As mentioned above, both conditions are caused by bacterial and viral infections. What causes these infections, on the other hand, is the patient’s exposure to allergens and pollutants.

 

 

Risk Factors of Tonsillitis and Adenoiditis

Because these conditions are brought by bacterial and viral infections, it can also cause more complications if not treated effectively. In many cases, it leads to sleep apnea or breathing difficulties in one’s sleep. It also causes snoring which can be disruptive to the patient and their bed partner’s sleep.

 

 

In some occasions, both conditions can also lead to upper respiratory tract infection. The bacteria or virus that caused the ailments can travel down the throat and wreak havoc elsewhere. This can then lead to more serious problems later on.

 

 

Signs and Symptoms

How can you tell if you or your little one has any of these conditions? Here are a few of its symptoms:

  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Red and swollen tonsils
  • Swollen and tender lymph nodes under the jaw
  • Head and ear ache
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Bad breath
  • Snoring

 

 

Treating Tonsil or Adenoid Inflammation or Infection

Treating both conditions are pretty straightforward. In most cases, you only really need to treat it with antibiotics. It’s important to complete the cycle, however, to prevent the recurrence of the infection.

 

 

In chronic cases, however, your ENT doctor might recommend the removal of the said body parts altogether. Tonsillectomies and adenoidectomies are considered as minor procedures, however, so you don’t have to worry much about them. They might not even require hospitalization but in some cases, an overnight stay might be needed.

 

 

As ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

From Diagnosis To Treatment: An Overview Of Angiofibroma of Nasopharynx

Does your child have difficulty in breathing, nosebleeds, and headaches, perhaps accompanied by ear aches, decreased sense of small, and even facial deformation that hasn’t been there before? If you answered yes, then you should have your child checked by your ENT doctor since he may have angiofibroma of nasopharynx.

 

 

The earlier the rare tumor of the nose, also called juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), is detected, the better the prognosis when appropriate treatments are provided promptly.

 

 

Diagnostic Methods Used

Even when your child exhibits the abovementioned symptoms, you have to remember that it doesn’t mean that he has JNA. Your child’s ENT doctor will perform a series of medical examinations that usually includes:

  • A thorough physical examination, especially of the nose area
  • A complete medical history
  • Radiological studies using x-rays, CT scans, and/or MRI scans
  • Vascular angiography study, a useful tool during surgery (i.e., the surgeon uses it to minimize the bleeding)
  • Biopsy of the tumor (i.e., the excised tumor will be subjected to a pathological exam to determine its nature, whether benign or malignant)

 

 

The biopsy cannot be performed on a partially excised tumor since it can result in considerable bleeding during the process. The tumor must then be completely removed.

 

 

During the initial diagnostic exams, your ENT doctor will likely perform other diagnostic tests to rule out other medical issues. This is because JNA has symptoms similar to other types of cancer, among other medical conditions.

 

 

The need for early detection and definitive diagnosis also comes from the concern of considerable complications associated with JNA. These include severe and prolonged bleeding resulting in anemia, neurological issues caused by the tumor’s spread into brain tissue, and severe anxiety issues as a result of cosmetic concerns.

 

 

When the tumor isn’t completely removed, it can regrow and spread to the surrounding structures. In rare cases, it can even become malignant (i.e., cancerous).

 

 

Treatment Options Available

Your doctor should discuss your child’s treatment plan in detail so that you know the risks and rewards that come with each option. You may or may not let your child in on the treatment process depending on his age, maturity level, and willingness to participate.

 

 

But it’s best to explain the treatments in a way that he will understand, especially as there will be side effects and complications no matter the treatment option.

  • Arterial embolization involves blocking the tumor’s blood supply resulting in its death.
  • Hormonal therapy can decrease the size of the tumor thereby making it easier to target with other types of treatment.
  • Radiation therapy is usually used against a locally invasive tumor. There are two types, namely: first, stereotactic radiation therapy wherein radiation is delivered via an external device; and second, conformal radiation therapy, a three-dimensional procedure with more accurate results.
  • Complete removal of the tumor via surgery is the treatment of choice since its partial removal can cause significant complications, such as heavy bleeding and its recurrence.

 

 

Since JNA can cause facial deformity, you should consider reconstruction cosmetic surgery to bring back your child’s beautiful appearance.

 

 

If you wonder if your child suffers from angiofibroma of nasopharynx, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Basic Information About Angiofibroma of Nasopharynx In Children

Angiofibroma of nasopharynx in children, also known as juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), is a relatively rare benign tumor of the nose. Unfortunately, it’s an aggressive tumor that can spread into the neighboring structures resulting in serious complications. But when it’s completely removed, the prognosis is generally good – and, indeed, it is good news for parents with children affected by the disease.

 

 

Risk Factors

Researchers have yet to identify the risk factors associated with JNA. Patients typically come from diverse ethnic, racial and geographical backgrounds.

 

 

But the rare tumor is almost exclusively seen in adolescent boys ranging in age from 7 to 19 years. It’s also considered rare for another reason – only 0.05% of all reported head and neck tumors are JNA. It’s also hardly known to occur in girls within the same age range in particular and in females in general.

 

 

Parents, if you’re blaming yourself or others for your son’s condition, you shouldn’t for this reason. The best thing to do is find the best doctor specializing in JNA and take it from there.

 

 

Causes and Symptoms

As with the risk factors, researchers have yet to identify definitive causes for JNA. The widely held theory, nonetheless, points to hormonal influence for the growth of the tumor. As a boy enters puberty, the hormonal changes may contribute to the tumor’s development; the androgen hormones are thought to be behind the mechanism.

 

 

While the causes are as yet unknown, the symptoms of JNA are observable. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms are also present in other illnesses and, thus, the importance of a medical consultation cannot be overemphasized.

  • Stuffy nose
  • Nosebleeds
  • Headaches
  • Decreased sense of smell
  • Deafness
  • Disfigurement of the nose and face

 

 

In some cases, the tumor can spread into the brain tissue resulting in neurological symptoms. Anemia resulting from severe bleeding in the tumor may also happen.

 

 

Your doctor will perform a series of medical examinations including laboratory and imaging tests to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. As with all types of tumors, you may want to consider a second opinion.

 

 

Treatment Options

Early detection is important in the effective treatment of nasopharynx angiofibroma. But the successful and complete removal of the tumor is even more important in its treatment.

 

 

Aside from complete surgical excision, your doctor will also consider other treatment options for your child. These include radiation therapy and arterial embolization, which have their share of pros and cons for serious consideration. Your doctor may suggest one or more of these treatments depending on your child’s condition, among other factors.

 

 

Children can enjoy a full life after JNA treatment, thanks to the good prognosis. Parents, take note that the prognosis itself can be affected by complications and, in rare cases, by the transformation of the benign tumor into a malignant tumor.

 

 

If you wonder if your child suffers from angiofibroma of nasopharynx, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.

 

 

Source:

HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

http://www.hkentspecialist.hk

Children with Down Syndrome and Their Common ENT Issues

Health issues related to the ears, nose and throat are common among children with Down syndrome. Most of these issues are also present throughout the children’s lives thus emphasizing the importance for both parents and ENT doctors to work closely in their management.  Their effective management is a must, too, considering that ENT issues are closely linked to the child’s physical, mental and social development. Continue reading

How You Can Find the Right ENT Specialist for You

How You Can Find the Right ENT Specialist for You

 

At some point in your life, you will need an ear, nose and throat doctor, a medical professional also referred to as an ENT specialist or otolaryngologist. Perhaps your ears hurt or you’re having difficulty breathing properly through your nose. Or perhaps you often find yourself coughing at night but are absolutely cough-free during day time. Whatever it is that you feel or notice in your ears, nose or throat, it’s always a good idea to see a doctor that specializes in diagnosing and treating such problems to ensure that the problem doesn’t get worse. Continue reading

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