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ENT Knowledge Base (Chinese)

ENT Knowledge Base


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From Diagnosis To Treatment: An Overview Of Angiofibroma of Nasopharynx

Does your child have difficulty in breathing, nosebleeds, and headaches, perhaps accompanied by ear aches, decreased sense of small, and even facial deformation that hasn’t been there before? If you answered yes, then you should have your child checked by your ENT doctor since he may have angiofibroma of nasopharynx.



The earlier the rare tumor of the nose, also called juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), is detected, the better the prognosis when appropriate treatments are provided promptly.



Diagnostic Methods Used

Even when your child exhibits the abovementioned symptoms, you have to remember that it doesn’t mean that he has JNA. Your child’s ENT doctor will perform a series of medical examinations that usually includes:

  • A thorough physical examination, especially of the nose area
  • A complete medical history
  • Radiological studies using x-rays, CT scans, and/or MRI scans
  • Vascular angiography study, a useful tool during surgery (i.e., the surgeon uses it to minimize the bleeding)
  • Biopsy of the tumor (i.e., the excised tumor will be subjected to a pathological exam to determine its nature, whether benign or malignant)



The biopsy cannot be performed on a partially excised tumor since it can result in considerable bleeding during the process. The tumor must then be completely removed.



During the initial diagnostic exams, your ENT doctor will likely perform other diagnostic tests to rule out other medical issues. This is because JNA has symptoms similar to other types of cancer, among other medical conditions.



The need for early detection and definitive diagnosis also comes from the concern of considerable complications associated with JNA. These include severe and prolonged bleeding resulting in anemia, neurological issues caused by the tumor’s spread into brain tissue, and severe anxiety issues as a result of cosmetic concerns.



When the tumor isn’t completely removed, it can regrow and spread to the surrounding structures. In rare cases, it can even become malignant (i.e., cancerous).



Treatment Options Available

Your doctor should discuss your child’s treatment plan in detail so that you know the risks and rewards that come with each option. You may or may not let your child in on the treatment process depending on his age, maturity level, and willingness to participate.



But it’s best to explain the treatments in a way that he will understand, especially as there will be side effects and complications no matter the treatment option.

  • Arterial embolization involves blocking the tumor’s blood supply resulting in its death.
  • Hormonal therapy can decrease the size of the tumor thereby making it easier to target with other types of treatment.
  • Radiation therapy is usually used against a locally invasive tumor. There are two types, namely: first, stereotactic radiation therapy wherein radiation is delivered via an external device; and second, conformal radiation therapy, a three-dimensional procedure with more accurate results.
  • Complete removal of the tumor via surgery is the treatment of choice since its partial removal can cause significant complications, such as heavy bleeding and its recurrence.



Since JNA can cause facial deformity, you should consider reconstruction cosmetic surgery to bring back your child’s beautiful appearance.



If you wonder if your child suffers from angiofibroma of nasopharynx, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

Basic Information About Angiofibroma of Nasopharynx In Children

Angiofibroma of nasopharynx in children, also known as juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), is a relatively rare benign tumor of the nose. Unfortunately, it’s an aggressive tumor that can spread into the neighboring structures resulting in serious complications. But when it’s completely removed, the prognosis is generally good – and, indeed, it is good news for parents with children affected by the disease.



Risk Factors

Researchers have yet to identify the risk factors associated with JNA. Patients typically come from diverse ethnic, racial and geographical backgrounds.



But the rare tumor is almost exclusively seen in adolescent boys ranging in age from 7 to 19 years. It’s also considered rare for another reason – only 0.05% of all reported head and neck tumors are JNA. It’s also hardly known to occur in girls within the same age range in particular and in females in general.



Parents, if you’re blaming yourself or others for your son’s condition, you shouldn’t for this reason. The best thing to do is find the best doctor specializing in JNA and take it from there.



Causes and Symptoms

As with the risk factors, researchers have yet to identify definitive causes for JNA. The widely held theory, nonetheless, points to hormonal influence for the growth of the tumor. As a boy enters puberty, the hormonal changes may contribute to the tumor’s development; the androgen hormones are thought to be behind the mechanism.



While the causes are as yet unknown, the symptoms of JNA are observable. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms are also present in other illnesses and, thus, the importance of a medical consultation cannot be overemphasized.

  • Stuffy nose
  • Nosebleeds
  • Headaches
  • Decreased sense of smell
  • Deafness
  • Disfigurement of the nose and face



In some cases, the tumor can spread into the brain tissue resulting in neurological symptoms. Anemia resulting from severe bleeding in the tumor may also happen.



Your doctor will perform a series of medical examinations including laboratory and imaging tests to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. As with all types of tumors, you may want to consider a second opinion.



Treatment Options

Early detection is important in the effective treatment of nasopharynx angiofibroma. But the successful and complete removal of the tumor is even more important in its treatment.



Aside from complete surgical excision, your doctor will also consider other treatment options for your child. These include radiation therapy and arterial embolization, which have their share of pros and cons for serious consideration. Your doctor may suggest one or more of these treatments depending on your child’s condition, among other factors.



Children can enjoy a full life after JNA treatment, thanks to the good prognosis. Parents, take note that the prognosis itself can be affected by complications and, in rare cases, by the transformation of the benign tumor into a malignant tumor.



If you wonder if your child suffers from angiofibroma of nasopharynx, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services as soon as possible. HK ENT Specialist Ltd. is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre to offer ENT Services. Please contact us for an appointment at 3100 0555.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

What is Epiglottitis and is it a disease to be trifled with?

The epiglottis is one of the most interesting parts of one’s mouth. It might not seem like much with its teardrop resemblance but it actually helps you avoid inhaling your food. It helps ensure that the food goes where it’s intended to be, making it a reliable part of your digestive system.



While not a lot of people take a second look at the epiglottis, its swelling and inflammation can be a seriously life-threatening condition. Known as the epiglottitis, it can block your windpipe which can prevent air from getting into your lungs. This is why it’s very important to take care of your epiglottis to avoid such complications.



Epiglottitis: The Ailment of the Epiglottis

As mentioned above, epiglottitis is the condition where your epiglottis swells. It will then effectively block your windpipe which will prevent air from reaching your lungs. This condition is common in young children but adults can have it, too.



Due to its serious effects, it requires immediate medical attention. Aside from its fatal risks, it can also cause respiratory failure. And if the swelling involves infection, the bacterial growth can also spread into the other organs and cause more serious complications.



Causes of Epiglottitis

As suggested above, epiglottitis can be caused by various things. Some of the most common culprits, however, are the following:



Bacterial, fungal, and viral infection

The most common cause of the inflammation of the epiglottis is an infection. Various microbes can result in this condition, making it a rather common condition.



Back in the day, the Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) is the most common cause of this condition. However, due to immunization, fewer cases of such infections are noted. Nowadays, the more common causes of epiglottis are the Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus), Streptococcus A, B and C, and the Staphylococcus aureus.



In some occasions, the viruses that cause chickenpox and shingles can also be blamed for epiglottitis. The fungi that cause yeast infections and diaper rashes can also cause this condition.




The epiglottis can also be quite delicate so injuring it can result in epiglottitis as well. How do you injure this cartilage? Here are a few examples of the things you should avoid if you don’t want to damage your epiglottis:

  • Drinking hot or caustic liquids
  • Swallowing foreign objects
  • Swallowing chemicals that can burn your throat
  • Smoking drugs, especially crack cocaine
  • Experiencing serious trauma to the throat



Signs and Symptoms

How can you tell if you have epiglottitis? Here are its most common symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Drooling
  • Pain and difficulty when swallowing
  • Hoarse voice



How to Prevent and Treat Epiglottitis

If you’ve been vaccinated against Hib, you’ve already taken the first step in preventing epiglottitis. However, taking common precautions like observing good hygiene is also a must to keep this condition at bay.



Treatment, on the other hand, can be a complicated thing. As mentioned above, if you think you or your child has epiglottitis, immediate medical attention is required. Hospitalization is usually necessary to start the treatment procedure, so be ready for that. With the help of your doctor, full recovery can be expected in most cases. As ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

What is facial paralysis and what can you do to treat it?

What is facial paralysis and what can you do to treat it? Find the answers here.


Facial paralysis is the condition where one loses their ability to control some or all of the muscles in the face. Not only can this affect one’s physical appearance but it can also make certain bodily functions more difficult. Those who experience this condition can find it difficult to speak, eat, close their eyes, mover their eyebrows, and express emotions.



In some cases, your facial features may look drooping as a result of this condition. In others, muscle weakness is the only manifestation of the paralysis. Facial paralysis is often very noticeable, so it can be quite easy to tell if someone is suffering from the condition.



What Causes Facial Paralysis?

There are tons of things that can cause facial paralysis. Some of the most common ones include:



Inflammation or infection of the facial nerve

The most common cause of facial paralysis is when the facial nerves get damaged. This can come in the form of swelling, infection, or a tumor pressing on to the facial nerves. As these things connect the brain to your muscles, any kind of damage can disrupt the communication between the two. This paralyzes your facial muscles as a result.



Bell’s Palsy is one of the diseases that causes facial paralysis by causing inflammation in your facial nerves. This condition can affect anyone, even healthy individuals.



Unfortunately, the cause of the disease hasn’t really been determined yet but many experts believe that it’s caused by an infection. Those with HIV, Lyme disease, diabetes, Sarcoidosis, and ear infections have increased risks of the condition, however.




Stroke is considered as a serious cause of facial paralysis because it usually involves nerve damage in the brain. Depending on the type of stroke that occurred, the facial paralysis can be a result of lack of oxygen or bleeding in the brain cells.



Head trauma

Unfortunately, head traumas can also paralyze some or all of your facial muscles. Since this condition is caused by a wide array of events, it’s also one of the most common causes of facial paralysis. This is also a common culprit for facial paralysis in newborns as it is possible for them to experience head traumas during birth.



Signs and Symptoms

Fortunately, it’s quite easy to tell whether a person is experiencing facial paralysis. Here are a few of the most reliable signs and symptoms that should alert you if you or a loved one is afflicted with this condition:


  • Changes in the asymmetry of one’s facial features.
  • Inability to move the eyebrows, lips, or eyelids with ease.
  • Sagging or drooping of facial muscles.
  • Loss of facial coordination.
  • Pain in one ear.


Sometimes, facial paralysis also comes with dizziness, headaches, and hypersensitivity to sounds. In severe cases, it might also come with blindness and seizures. On these instances, you should rush to see your doctor right away.



Can You Recover from Facial Paralysis?

It’s possible to recover from facial paralysis with the proper treatment. This, however, will depend on what caused the condition in the first place. So to get the best treatment, it’s essential to see your doctor first. Since ENT problem is quite different from case to case, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

What is External Otitis and what can you do about it?

What is External Otitis and what can you do about it? Find out here.


Also referred to as Otitis Externa or Swimmer’s Ears, External Otitis is a type of ear infection. It typically runs from the outside of your ear into your eardrum and can cause itchiness, pain, ear blockage, swelling, and even fever.



External Otitis cases can be classified as acute, chronic, eczematous, necrotizing, or otomycosis. This means that it can range in severity and might need continuous treatment, depending on your case. It can also lead to serious complications and infections when not treated right away.



Causes of External Otitis

Typically seen in swimmers as its name suggests, External Otitis is typically caused by the bacteria known as Pseudomonas. In some cases, it can also be a fungal infection caused by Candida or Aspergillus.



No matter what the case is, however, this condition is most often the result of not being able to dry the ear thoroughly. The water that stays in the curves and crevices of the ear fosters bacterial growth.


Things get worse if you have ear injuries. This is why scratching, improper use of ear-cleaning tools, and the use of irritating products are also listed as causes of this ailment.



Aside from these causes, some people are also just more at risk of the condition than others. Aside from swimmers, those with skin sensitivities and conditions are more likely to contract the disease compared to the general populace. So if you have allergies, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis, there’s also a chance that your condition can increase your risks of contracting External Otitis.



Signs and Symptoms

There are several signs that should clue you in about this infection. Below are a few examples of the most common symptoms arranged from mild to severe:


  • Itchiness in the ear canal
  • Mild discomfort in the ear
  • Slight redness of the ear
  • Presence of a small amount of clear, odorless fluid inside the ear
  • Increasing pain and itchiness
  • Excessive fluid drainage
  • Pus discharge
  • Partial ear canal blockage
  • Muffled hearing
  • Severe pain
  • Outer ear swelling
  • Total ear blockage
  • Fever



Preventing External Otitis

Preventing this condition isn’t impossible to do. If you’re at risk, here are a few things you can do:


  • Make sure to dry your ears properly.
  • Avoid injuring your ears by keeping foreign objects away from it.
  • Protect your ears when using hair products to avoid irritants from getting in.
  • Take precautionary measures during your swims.
    • Monitor the bacterial levels in the pool and avoid swimming on the days when the numbers are high.
    • Use preventive ear drops before getting in the water.



Treatments for External Otitis

If you suspect that you already have External Otitis, the most important thing that you should do is to see your doctor right away. They can create the right treatment plan for your diagnosis so you should seek their help right away.



In most cases, the treatment for this condition involves professional cleaning followed by the prescription of various medications for the infection. You might need to get on antibiotics and use ear drops during the treatment process.



While treating your External Otitis, however, it’s recommended to avoid swimming and scuba diving for the time being. You shouldn’t really get water in the infected area, so it’s also recommended to protect your ear when you bathe. It will also be best not to use any in-ear appliance or device until the infection heals.



If you suffer an ENT problem, it is suggested to consult an ENT Specialist for the appropriate ENT services. Please contact us for an appointment of our ENT services and consulation at 3100 0555.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

What is Nasal Leak and Its Symptoms?

Most of us dismiss a runny nose as a simple cold that will go away on its own. However, there are cases where it doesn’t go away and that should tell you to seek medical attention right away.



While it’s rare, what some folks initially thought to be a runny nose is actually a nasal leak. Its layman’s name might not sound like much but its technical term, cerebrospinal fluid leak, might just make you realize that it’s a serious condition.



Also referred to as the CSF leak, this is a condition where brain fluid leaks through the ear or nose. It happens when a tear is made in the dura or the thin outer membrane that contains the fluid. This is usually caused by injury or trauma but in some cases, it can also be quite spontaneous. In most cases, folks who experience CSF leaks have it because of prior head trauma.



The said fluid is the same one that circulates around the brain and spinal cord. It serves as cushioning to your brain, relieving pressure to the vital organ. Experts say that a person with a nasal leak can lose about half a liter of brain fluid in a day.



Nasal Leak Symptoms

How do will you know if you’re experiencing CSF leak? The most major sign that you should be wary of is a clear, watery drainage from your nose. As mentioned above, nasal leaks are usually confused with a runny nose because they have similar characteristics. However, colds should only last two to three weeks while nasal leaks tend to last longer as they don’t necessarily go away.



If this cold followed some time after head trauma, you should also suspect a nasal leak. While the condition is still considered to be quite rare, it’s not a completely scarce condition. In fact, support groups for patients have already been formed so it’s quite safe to say that this condition isn’t a one in one billion occurrence.



The increase in drainage should also clue you in that you’re suffering from a nasal leak. If the outward flow of the fluid increases when the head is tilted downwards, then, there’s a good chance that you’re suffering from a CSF leak and not just a runny nose.



It should also be noted, however, that CSF leaks can also come out of a patient’s ear. The condition is similar to nasal leaks in all regards except for where the fluid exits the head.



CSF leak also tends to come with the following symptoms as a result of the decrease in the amount of fluid around the brain:

  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Neck pain
  • Sense of imbalance
  • Sensitivity to light and sounds



Treating CSF Nasal Leak

A case of CSF leak will make the sufferer at risk of meningitis. This is why it’s crucial to learn how to treat the condition right away.



Fortunately, some cases heal on its own. However, there are others that will need a surgery to fix. This is why it’s imperative that you see an ENT specialist right away if you suspect that you’re having a nasal leak. For appointment to consult our ENT specialist, please contact HK ENT Specialist Ltd. which is a professional Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre offering ENT services.




HK ENT Specialist Ltd.

Hong Kong based ENT clinic centre

For ENT Services, Audiology & Speech Therapy,

Sleep Disordered Breathing Management,

Hearing Aid Prescription & Medical Cosmetic Services

Understanding Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

Our immune system constantly works hard to protect our body from harm caused by alien substances like toxins, bacteria, and viruses. Blood proteins called antibodies attack and remove these foreign substances from our body to prevent them from causing illnesses and infections.


The immune system is one of those things that you don’t really notice as long as it’s doing its job right; but once it malfunctions, it’s hard to ignore. Sometimes, the human body mistakenly identifies its own as foreign and attacks itself. This is what we call an autoimmune reaction. Continue reading

Raise Your Voice Against Your Aging Voice

As we age, our bodies’ physiology also changes – our muscles become weaker, our joints become stiffer, and our skin starts to sag, among others. But we often overlook our changing voice including the differences in its tone and pitch, as well as our ability to speak in ways that others can understand well.


We shouldn’t dismiss these voice-related issues because these can affect our quality of life. If it applies to you, you should raise your voice, so to speak, and raise your concerns with your otolaryngologist. If you don’t have one, you will find plenty of ENT doctors who will listen to your concerns and work closely in finding the best possible solutions for them.


Know the Causes


For many elderly people, their voice-related issues are mainly due to their aging larynx, known as presbyphonia, and to glottic insufficiency (i.e., the vocal cords aren’t closing solidly). This causes several voice changes in terms of pitch and tone, as well as in shorter duration in phonation and in poor vocal projection. These changes can make it challenging to express yourself even to family and friends, even affect your sense of confidence.


But it isn’t just the voice-related parts that contribute to your aging voice. It may also be caused by an underlying medical condition that affects pulmonary capacity (i.e., breathing) and neurological function. It may also be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that, once appropriately treated, can reduce the impact of the voice alterations.


The underlying medical conditions include tumors, allergies, changes in hormones, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Your doctor will consider the possibility that, indeed, there are multiple factors affecting the quality of your voice. You may, for example, observe changes in your voice as the first symptom in a diagnosis of ALS or Parkinson’s disease, a common occurrence.


Know the Treatments


Fortunately, your otolaryngologist can recommend several treatments that can improve the quality of your voice. You have to choose from among these treatments depending on your own needs for them. You may have to combine two or more treatments for the best results.


  • Voice therapy is a first-line defense because of its non-invasive nature although it takes time, energy and effort to get results.


  • Surgery can also be considered. The procedures include injection laryngoplasty, a procedure where a filler is injected into the larynx so that the vocal cords can be bulked up; and thyroplasty, a procedure involving placing an implant in the neck.


You will also likely be taught about effective coping mechanisms in dealing with your changing voice. No matter your treatment plan, you should strive for compliance if and when you want to benefit from it.


For more details of our ENT services, please contact HK ENT Specialist.



HK ENT Specialist

offering ENT services,

Hearing aids prescription,

Swallowing disorder assessment and treatment,

Head and Neck Oncology,

Sleep disordered breathing Management,

and Facial Plastic Surgery, etc.

Children with Down Syndrome and Their Common ENT Issues

Health issues related to the ears, nose and throat are common among children with Down syndrome. Most of these issues are also present throughout the children’s lives thus emphasizing the importance for both parents and ENT doctors to work closely in their management.  Their effective management is a must, too, considering that ENT issues are closely linked to the child’s physical, mental and social development. Continue reading

Special Considerations for Senior Citizens with Rhinitis

When the elderly have chronic rhinitis, the most common complaints, health-wise, include:


  • Feeling of nasal obstruction
  • Crusting on the nose, especially during cold winter
  • Constant need for throat clearing
  • Feeling of vague pressure on the face
  • Reduced sense of taste and smell from the blocked nose


For the most part, the symptoms of rhinitis or sinusitis among seniors are the same as in younger populations. But because of their age, ENT doctors must consider the special considerations that affect seniors with rhinitis. Continue reading

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